1. NaCl or CaCl2  is used to clear snow from roads. why

2. what is an antifreeze?

3. what is de icing agent?

4. what is vant hoff factor for a factor which undergoes tetramerisation in an organic compound.

Due to paucity of time it would not be possible for us to solve all your queries. We are providing solution to two of your queries. Try solving the rest of the questions yourself and if you face any difficulty then do get back to us.

1) When added to ice. NaCl and CaCl2 ionise into respective ions (Na+, Ca2+ & Cl-) this leads to increase in the number of particles (ions). Increasing the number of particles increases the van't hoff factor. Van't hoff factor is directly proportional to the depression in freezing point thus lowers the the freezing point of ice causing preventing the formation of ice.

2) An anti-freeze is a liquid, usually ethylene glycol which causes depression in freezing point of water preventing it from freezing at 0 0C.


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  1. When you add salt to water,you introduce dissolved foreign particles to water.The freezing point of water becomes lower as more particles are added until the point where the salt stops dissolving (saturation point).NaCl melts ice at -6 C. CaCl2 does the same at-29 C.
  2. An antifreeze is a chemical compound which reduces the freezing point of water. It is used in heat transfer apps and internal combustion engines to prevent the enclosure from undergoing deformation due to expansion when water turns to  ice.
  3. A mech or thermal device or  a chemical compound that prevents formation of ice esp. on an aircraft. E.g.NaCl
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