1.what is a resource ?

2.name some natural resource?

3.which element is needed for respiration?

4.name the element present in maximum quantity in the atmosphere?

5.describe watercycle?

6.describe various uses of water?

7.list different types of soil?

8.why soil is important for vegitation?

9.name reactive and non-reactive gaseos elements?

10.what is condensation

1 Resources:   All the minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife, land within the political boundaries and oceanic area upto 12 nautical miles (19.2 km) from the coast termed as territorial water and resources therein belong to the nation.

2 Soil, Water, Sunlight

3 Oxygen

Condensation :When a substance in a gaseous state gets converted into liquid state on cooling, for example, water vapour (gas) present in air gets condensed to water droplets (liquid) on coming in contact with cold surface such as walls of a tumbler containing ice, then the process is known as condensation.

condensation is nothing but transformation of gas to liquid. eg when we keep afreezed water bottle outsid i.e. in surrounding the air arround that bottle comes in contact with bottlle and cools down and it appears like water droplets on the surface of bottle.just this is condensation.....

"Due to paucity of time it would not be possible for us to solve all your queries. We are providing solution to few  of your queries. Try solving the rest of the questions yourself and if you face any difficulty then do get back to us."

  • 0

1.Something that can be used for support or help:The local library is a valuable resource.

2.An available supply that can be drawn on when needed. Often used in the plural.3.The ability to deal with a difficult or troublesome situation effectively; initiative:a person of resource.4.Means that can be used to cope with a difficult situation. Often used in the plural:
  • 0



Freshwater only makes 2.5% of the total volume of the world's water, which is about 35 million km3. But considering 70% of that freshwater is in the form of ice and permanent snow cover and that we only have access to 200,000km3 of freshwater overall, it isn't surprising that demand for water could soon exceed supply. TheFood and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations is predictingthat by 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity.


The fear of reaching peak oil continues to haunt the oil industry. TheBP Statistical Review of World Energy in Junemeasured total global oil at 188.8 million tonnes, from proved oil resources at the end of 2010. This is only enough to oil for the next 46.2 years, should global production remain at the current rate.

3. Natural gas

A similar picture to oil exists for natural gas, withenough gas in proven reservesto meet 58.6 years of global production at the end of 2010.

4. Phosphorus

Without this element, plants cannot grow. Essential for fertiliser, phosphate rock is only found in a handful of countries, including the US, China and Morocco. With the need to feed 7 billion people, scientists from theGlobal Phosphorus Research Initiativepredict we could run out of phosphorus in 50 to 100 years unless new reserves of the element are found.

5. Coal

This has the largest reserves left of all thefossil fuels, but as China and other developing countries continue to increase their appetite for coal, demand could finally outstrip supply. As it is, we have enough coal to meet 188 years of global production.

6. Rare earth elements

Scandium and terbium are just two of the 17 rare earth minerals that are used in everything from the powerful magnets in wind turbines to the electronic circuits in smartphones. The elements are not as rare as their name suggests but currently 97% of the world's supply comes from China and they can restrict supplies at will. Exact reserves are not known.

  • 0

4.nitrogen that is 78%

  • 0

3.oxygen and carbon dioxide

  • 0

5.Precipitation is a vital component of how water moves through Earths water cycle, connecting the ocean, land, andatmosphere. Knowing where it rains, how much it rains and the character of the falling rain, snow orhailallows scientists to better understand precipitations impact on streams, rivers, surfacerunoffandgroundwater. Frequent and detailed measurements help scientists make models of and determine changes in Earths water cycle.

The water cycle describes how water evaporates from the surface of the earth, rises into the atmosphere, cools and condenses into rain or snow in clouds, and falls again to the surface as precipitation. The water falling on land collects in rivers and lakes, soil, andporouslayers of rock, and much of it flows back into the oceans, where it will once more evaporate. The cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere is a significant aspect of theweatherpatterns on Earth.

  • 0


There are many, many ways that we use our water,

Seattle LocksPhoto courtesy of US Army Corps of Engineers

and that is partly why it is so important that we conserve our water. Water is our most precious resource. Water is vital to life. Humans, plants, and animals are made up of mostly water. All living things would die if it weren't for water. We use water for drinking, washing, cleaning, cooking, and growing our food as well as many, many other things. The average American uses around 150-250 gallons of water daily. Even more water is used by industries to generate electricity, manufacture things, and transport people and goods.

Common householduses consume a lot of water. It may take between 30 and 40 gallons for one bath. The average toilet uses about 5 gallons of water per flush. It takes 20-40 gallons of water for one shower. Washing machines use an average of 25 gallons per load. The kitchen sink takes roughly 20 gallons per day for preparing food and washing dishes. The bathroom sink, used for washing hands, shaving and brushing teeth, requires about 15 gallons per day. These numbers are estimated for the average household in America.

Mowing LawnPhoto courtesy of FreeFoto.com

Much of our fresh water is also used outdoors for watering lawns, flower beds, and vegetable gardens, as well as washing cars and filling swimming pools. We must be careful not to pollute the water that we use outside. Many people use chemicals on their lawns and gardens and then water them with pure water. The water will wash the chemicals off of your plants and then run down a storm drain and go straight to the rivers and streams where fish make their homes. This kind of polluted water can kill fish and wildlife. We should always be mindful of whether or not we are polluting the water around us. We need to take care of our water, not abuse it.

Every town and city, whether small or big, uses water. Cities use water for fire fighting, street cleaning, and watering public areas such as parks, grass, trees, shrubs, and flowers. Water is also used to fill public drinking fountains, including those at schools and libraries. All of the different businesses in your community also use water. Think about all the water that is used by restaurants, hospitals, laundries, dry cleaners, golf courses, hotels, car washes, beauty shops, barber shops, gas stations, and health clubs as well as all of the other businesses in town. These all add up to quite a big demand on Washington's water supply. We need to try to think about how many people need to use water and conserve our water so that there is enough to go around.

The amountof water needed to run a farm is tremendous. When we think of water on a farm, we think of watering crops;

Beef and DariyPhoto courtesy of FreeFoto.com

but the amount of water needed on a dairy farm is a huge amount also. Chickens, pigs, sheep, and all the other animals in a farmyard need drinking water to stay alive. Food must be grown for them to eat, and water is also required in the cooling systems used to keep production meat fresh. Vegetable and grain crops also require water. Water is used in spreading fertilizers,herbicides, andpesticides, which produce a greater crop yield, but can also contaminate the water. Most of the water used on farms is used forirrigation. Studies show that by using dripirrigation, farmers can conserve up to 60% of the water that it would normally take to irrigate their crops using other systems of irrigation.

It takes about 26 gallons of water to produce one ear of corn while it takes about 2000-2500 gallons of water to produce one pound of beef. Around 120 gallons of water is required to produce one egg. About 300 gallons of water is needed to produce one loaf of bread, and it takes about 12,000 gallons of water to grow a bushel of wheat. Believe it or not, about 1,400 gallons of water are used during the final production of one fast-food meal including a burger, fries, and a soft drink.

Hydroelectricplants are the largest users of water.

Hydroelectric DamPhoto courtesy of ArtToday

Hydroelectricplants capture thekineticenergy of falling water to make electricity. They do this with a dam. The dam forces the water level to go up so that the water will have more power when falling. The force of the falling water pressing against theturbines'blades cause them to spin. The spinningturbinestransmit thekineticenergy of the falling water togenerators. Thegeneratorsspin when theturbinesspin generating electricity that will be transmitted on the power lines to homes and businesses.

  • 0



Sandy soil has the largest particles among the different soil types. Its dry and gritty to the touch, and because the particles have huge spaces between them, it cant hold on to water.

Water drains rapidly, straight through to places where the roots, particularly those of seedlings, cannot reach. Plants dont have a chance of using the nutrients in sandy soil more efficiently as theyre swiftly carried away by the runoff.

The upside to sandy soil is that its light to work with and warms much more quickly in the spring.

Testing what type of soil youre working with involves moistening the soil and rolling it into a ball to check the predominating soil particle. When you roll the slightly wet sandy soil in your palms, no ball should be formed and it crumbles through your fingers easily.

2. Soil Type: Silty

Silty soil has much smaller particles than sandy soil so its smooth to the touch. When moistened, its soapy slick. When you roll it between your fingers, dirt is left on your skin.

Silty soil retains water longer, but it cant hold on to as much nutrients as youd want it to though its fairly fertile. Due to its moisture-retentive quality, silty soil is cold and drains poorly.

Silty soil can also easily compact, so avoid trampling on it when working your garden. It can become poorly aerated, too.

3. Soil Type: Clay

Clay soil has the smallest particles among the three so it has good water storage qualities. Its sticky to the touch when wet, but smooth when dry.

Due to the tiny size of its particles and its tendency to settle together, little air passes through its spaces. Because its also slower to drain, it has a tighter hold on plant nutrients. Clay soil is thus rich in plant food for better growth.

Clay soil is cold and in the spring, takes time to warm since the water within also has to warm up. The downside is that clay soil could be very heavy to work with when it gets dry. Especially during the summer months, it could turn hard and compact, making it difficult to turn. (When clay soil is worked while its too wet though, its prone to damage).

If moistened soil feels sticky, rolls up easily, and forms into a ball or sausage-like shape, then youve got yourself clay.

4. Soil Type: Peaty

Peaty soil is dark brown or black in color, soft, easily compressed due to its high water content, and rich in organic matter. Peat soil started forming over 9,000 years ago, with the rapid melting of glaciers. This rapid melt drowned plants quickly and died in the process. Their decay was so slow underwater that it led to the accumulation of organic area in a concentrated spot.

Although peat soil tends to be heavily saturated with water, once drained, it turns into a good growing medium. In the summer though, peat could be very dry and become a fire hazard. (I kid you not—peat is the precursor of coal.) The most desirable quality of peat soil, however, is in its ability to hold water in during the dry months and its capacity to protect the roots from damage during very wet months.

Peat contains acidic water, but growers use it to regulate soil chemistry or pH levels as well as an agent of disease control for the soil.

When wet peat soil is rolled, you wont form a ball. Its spongy to the touch and when squeezed, water could be forced out.

5. Soil Type: Saline Soil

The soil in extremely dry regions is usually brackish because of its high salt content. Known as saline soil, it can cause damage to and stall plant growth, impede germination, and cause difficulties in irrigation.

The salinity is due to the buildup of soluble salts in the rhizosphere—high salt contents prevent water uptake by plants, leading to drought stress.

Its easy enough to test if you have saline soil. Youll probably see a white layer coating the surface of the soil, your plants are growing poorly, and theyre suffering from leaf tip burn, especially on young leaves.

The Ideal Soil Type: Loam

The type of soil that gardens and gardeners love is loamy soil. It contains a balance of all three soil materials—silt, sand and clay—plus humus. It has a higher pH and calcium levels because of its previous organic matter content.

Loam is dark in color and is mealy—soft, dry and crumbly—in your hands. It has a tight hold on water and plant food but it drains well, and air moves freely between soil particles down to the roots.

The feel test for loam yields a smooth, partly gritty, partly sticky ball that crumbles easily.

Although loamy soil is the ideal material to work with, dont despair if you dont have it in your garden. Thats because soil will always favor one particles size over the two others. Then again, there are many ways to condition your soil—adding beneficialsoil inoculants, covering your soil withcompost, or simply spraying leaves and soil withcompost tea.

One Last Soil Typing Trick

If you really want to know what soil type youre working with but dont want to get dirty, fill a smallish jar with soil sampling from your garden. Shake vigorously and let the soil settle overnight. Next day, youll see distinct soil layers. Sand stays at the bottom, clay at the top and silt in between. Their percentages will be your clue on your soil type.

Stay tuned for our next blog posts, where well discuss how to manage sandy, silty and clay soils and the ideal plants to grow in each soil type. In the meantime, try the jar trick and tell us what type of soil youre working with and how youre managing that soil.

  • 0

ankita u are right but sorry my thumbs up is over good work keep it up

  • 0

7.Soil is linked to everything around us and performs many important roles in sustaining life on Earth. Soil plays seven key roles:

Providing the basis for food and biomass production

Unless sealed (covered over by roads, buildings, etc.), all soils support biomass production, whether it is natural vegetation or planted for agriculture and forestry. From the smallest seedling to the largest tree, all land-based vegetation depends on soil to provide them with nutrients, water and root support. In turn, this vegetation supports animal life on land.

The productivity of soil is dependent upon its physical and chemical conditions, as well as on climate. The most productive soils are usually used for arable farming and less productive soils support grassland, heathland and forests. Currently, around75% of land is used for food production; however, future needs (e.g. biofuel production, urban development) may result in competition for this high quality agricultural land resulting in further pressure on soil.

Controlling and regulating environmental interactions- regulating water flow and quality

Soil and water quality are very closely linked and, to a significant extent, soil properties determine water quality. As water passes through soil it is filtered and purified which helps to generate clean and wholesome groundwater. This process also includes the removal of nutrients thereby reducing the risk of water eutrophication (the process by which water bodies become enriched by nutrients).

Soils also store water; in fact, Scottish soils can store more water than is held in all Scottish freshwater lochs. The storage of water and its slow release regulates water flow thereby reducing the risk of flooding.

However, soils have a finite capacity for storing water, nutrients and pollutants. Once the storage capacity is exhausted no further storage can occur. This can result in the excess being released from the soil, potentially resulting in water pollution or flooding.

Storing carbon and maintaining the balance of gases in the air

Soil organic matter is an extremely important component of soil. It improves nearly all soil properties (e.g. moisture retention, soil structure, drainage, nutrient storage) and therefore plays a vital role in many functions of soil.

The ability of soil to store carbon is important in reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, thereby regulating climate change. Soil organisms continually breakdown complex organic molecules into simpler organic molecules and when the process is complete they are released as nutrients and gases, including greenhouse gases such as CO2. However, soil organisms are also involved in a process called humification where new, more complex and stable organic matter is formed. In some soils, notably peats, organic matter breakdown does not occur completely owing to the high acidity and water content, which results in the accumulation of organic matter in the soil.

The amount of organic carbon in a particular soil is determined by the balance between carbon input to the soil (as organic matter) and carbon loss from the soil. On a global scale, soils contain about twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and about three times as much as vegetation. Scotlands soils contain more than half of the UKs terrestrial carbon and are therefore important carbon stores. A loss of 0.5% of this stored soil carbon would be roughly equivalent to Scotlands annual greenhouse gas emissions.

The majority of CO2emissions from soil occur as a result of land use changes such as the draining or cultivating of organic soils, or the conversion of grasslands to arable land. Any disturbance of organic soils by forestry operations or construction projects, for example, may also result in CO2emissions.

Soils are also an important source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) with fertilised agricultural soils being responsible for the majority of Scotlands N2O emissions. In addition, agricultural soils can be an important source of ammonia, which affects sensitive semi-natural habitats through eutrophication.

Providing valued habitats and sustaining biodiversity

A habitat is a place that provides an organism with everything that it needs to survive, including food and shelter. Soil is a very complex habitat, sustaining a diverse range of organisms both above and below ground.

Biodiversity is the term used to refer to all the variety of life on Earth. It consists of all species, varieties and genes living both above and below ground.

Biodiversity above and below ground is influenced and controlled by soil properties. Scientists believe that soil biodiversity is much higher than in any other terrestrial habitat, even rainforests.

Whereas above ground biodiversity is relatively well known and understood, most soil organisms are still unknown and not yet scientifically described. The largest group of soil organisms are micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi. It is believed that they may hold important genetic material that may be used for future drug development.

Providing a platform for buildings and roads
  • 0
What are you looking for?