A couple quarrelled with the hospital authority on suspicion that their child had been exchanged after birth.The couple based their argument on the fact that their child is O blood group and they are A and B blood groupsrespectively.The doctor smiled and explained:
  1. How can the child be O blood group explained by the doctor?
  2. Which test method can be considered authentic to identify the biological parents?
  3. Write steps of this method.

1. the blood group of parents are:
    father: i^A i     mother: i^B i.
possible blood group of offspring: i^A i^B or i^A i  or i^B i  or i i.
its found that the child's blood group is O, i e. i i
the doctor can explain them about ABO- blood grouping.

2. the most advanced method for biological testing is PCR or polymerase chain reaction method (you'll read about it in Biotechnology: principles and processes).

3. the three steps involved in PCR :
     denaturation,  anneling , extension.

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