• At different pH, the structures of amino acids change because of ionisable nature of NH2and COOH groups.

  • what does it mean??

An amino acid has a basic amine group and an acidic carboxylic acid group. This structure internally transfers a hydrogen ion from COOH group to amine group leaving positive and negative charges on both. Such a structure is called a zwitterion.
At low pH: It means the medium is acidic i.e., there are enough H+ ions in medium so that the the carboxylate group tends to accept proton and form

At high pH: It means the medium is basic i.e., there is low concentration of H+ ions and high concentration of OH- ions so that the NH3+ of zwitter ion  loss a proton  to form NH2

At neutral pH the amino acid tend to form Zwitter ion.

  • 4

it means that when pH changes the structure changes and thus it becomes ionized.

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