Briefly describe the various techniques to measure time.

Time can be measured by any device which repeats its motion or path of motion at regular intervals. In order words, any oscillating medium can be used to measure time. Some of the commonly used devices used for measuring time are:
1. Simple pendulum: A simple pendulum consists of a bob (a small mass) attached to a light string. The string is tied at one end. When the bob is displaced from its mean position, it undergoes periodic motion with a fixed time period which could be taken as the unit of time elapsed.
2. A mechanical clock: Mechanical clock consists of a second arm, a minute arm, and an hour arm which completes one complete rotation about their common fixed end at fixed intervals. The intervals of minute arm is in multiples of the second arm while that of the hour arm is the multiple of the minute arm.
3. An atomic clock: An atomic clock is a clock that measures time by monitoring the resonant frequency of atoms. 
Time can also be measured by recording the size and orientation of the shadow of an object placed in sunlight. Such a device is called Sundial.

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