D.12 

Read the given case and answer the questions that follow:

Mahatma Gandhi's thoughts on Satyagraha

It is is said of "passive resistance" that it is the weapon of the weak, but the power which is the subject of this article can be used only by the strong.
The movement in South Africa was not passive but active.....

Satyagraha is not  physical force. A satyagrahi does not inflict pain on the adversary; he does not seek his destruction.....In the use of satyagraha there is  no ill-will whatever.'

'Satyagraha is pure soul-force. Truth is the very  substance of the  soul . That is why this force is called satyagraha. The soul is informed with knowledge. In it burns the flame of love..... Non-violence is the supreme dharma.....'
'It  is certain  that India cannot  rival Britain or Europe  in  force of arms. The, British worship the war-god and they can all of them become, as they are becoming, bearers of arms. The hundreds of millions in India can never carry arms, They have made the religion of non -violence their own .....


(12.1) W?hat type of movement Gandhiji organised in South Africa?
(12.2) Why is satyagraha considered  as pure soul-force?
(12.3) How has Gandhiji described passive ressistance?


 

Solution:
12.1- The non-violence movement Gandhiji organized in South Africa. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi fought for injustice and class divide in South Africa before leading the Indian independence movement. Within ten years, Gandhi spread the Satyagraha ideology and pushed the country toward a society in which there was no class or racial division. In 1893, the SS Safari brought Gandhi to Durban. As soon as Gandhi arrived in South Africa, he was quickly elevated to the position of head of the Indian community. South Africans still look up to him as a leader because of his work in the nonviolent resistance movement there.
12.2-No physical force is used in the practise of samadhi, or nonviolent resistance to injustice. There is no harm inflicted on the adversary by a satyagrahi. Satyagraha is used without any ill-will. True satyagraha is a manifestation of one's innermost thoughts and feelings. The essence of the human spirit is found in the pursuit of truth. Hence, satyagraha is the name given to this movement.
12.3-For Mahatma Gandhi peaceful protest is a tool of the weak, but did not prohibit its use of actual force and violence for the goal of accomplishing one’s end. On the other hand, satyagraha was designed to be a tool for the powerful and does not allow for using violence in any manner whatsoever. His goal behind the word Satyagraha was not just to kill his opponents, rather to convert others through sympathy, tolerance and self-endurance.

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