Describe the emergency powers of the president of india.
The President of India has the power to declare three types of emergency. They are National Emergency, State Emergency and Financial Emergency.
1.National Emergency ( Article 352 )
- On the grounds of security threats to India by war, external aggression or armed rebellion.
- The President can proclaim this emergency only after receiving a written recommendation from the Cabinet.
- The proclamation of the emergency must be approved by the Parliament with in one month. If approved, it will continue for six months.
- It can be extended for an indefinite period with an approval of the Parliament for every six months.
2.State Emergency ( Article 356 )
- Emergency due to failure of constitutional machinery in State.
- The Presidents rule can be imposed when the President is satisfied, on the basis of either a report of the State Governor or otherwise, that the governance of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the constitution.
- The proclamation of the Presidents rule should be approved by the Parliament within two months.
- If approved, it remains in force for six months from the date of proclamation of the State Emergency.
- It can be extended for a maximum period of three years with the approval of the Parliament every six months.
- The State Governor, on behalf of the President, carries on the State administration with the help of the advisors appointed by the President or the Chief Secretary of the State.
- The Presidents rule has been imposed more than 100 times.
3. Financial Emergency ( Article 360 )
- The President can proclaim Financial Emergency if he is satisfied that the financial stability or the credit of India or any part there of is threatened.
- Such a proclamation must be approved by the Parliament within two months.
- During the Emergency, the President can issue directions for the reduction of salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons serving under the State.
- Financial Emergency has not been declared so far.