Describe the roles of pituitary and ovarian hormones during the menstrual cycle in a human female?

The ovarian hormones circulate in the blood and are excreted in modified forms in the urine. Estimation of the urinary output by chemical methods gives an indication of the blood levels and of the total production of these substances. There are several natural estrogens, and numerous synthetic modifications of these and of progesterone have been devised; many are active when taken by mouth and are used for treatment of hormonal disorders and as oral Contraceptives.
The pituitary gland stimulates the ovary to produce estrogens and progesterone, but there is a “negative feedback” by which the estrogens inhibit the output of FSH from the pituitary gland (and probably stimulate the output of LH). In addition, progesterone is believed to inhibit the further output of LH. In this process, in which the pituitary first stimulates the ovary, and the ovary then inhibits the pituitary, the basic rhythm is under the control of the hypothalamus; nevertheless, ovulation can be inhibited Oral Contraceptives, which contain estrogens and progestogens—modifications of progesterone.

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