differentiate between plant cell &animal cell

Plant Cell Vs Animal Cell

A comparative study of plant cell vs animal cell is done by first providing diagrams of a plant cell and an animal cell followed by a table that lists the differences between the two.

Labeled Plant Cell Structure DiagramLabeled Animal Cell Diagram

Differences between plant and animal cells are summarized in the following table.

 

Characteristics Plant Cell Animal Cell
Cell Size Large Smaller than plant cells
Cell Shape Rectangular Circular
Vacuoles A single centrally located vacuole. It takes up almost 90% of the cell volume. The vacuole stores water and maintains turgidity of the cell. If any, there are a number of small vacuoles spread throughout the cytoplasm that store water, ions and waste materials.
Cell Wall A rigid cell wall (made of cellulose) is present around a plant cell that helps it maintain its shape. Cell wall is absent. This allows animal cells to adopt different shapes.
Chloroplasts Present. Chlorophyll is the pigment that traps sun's energy which is utilized by plants to make food through the process of photosynthesis. This pigment is present in the chloroplasts. Absent. As animals lack this pigment, they cannot make their own food.
Cell Division Cell division takes place by the formation of cell plate in the center of the dividing cell. This becomes the cell wall between the two daughter cells. Animal cells divide with the formation of a cleavage furrow. This is formed as the chromosomes move to the ends of the microtubule spindle formed by the centrioles.
Centrioles Present only in lower forms. Plants instead have microtubule organizing centers (MTOC) that produce the microtubules. Present. Centrioles help in division of animal cells by creating microtubule spindles that pull the chromosomes to opposite ends for cell division to occur.
Centrosome Absent. Instead two small clear areas called polar caps are present. Present
Lysosomes Absent Present. Lysosomes are vesicles that contain enzymes that destroy dead cell organelles and other cells debis.
Golgi Bodies In place of golgi bodies, its sub units known as dictyosomes are present. Complex golgi bodies are present close to the nucleus.




Other than the aforementioned differences between plant and animal cells, other organelles like nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes are present in both plant and animal cells.

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Animal Cell vs Plant Cell

Plant cell and animal cell are the structural unit of life of plants and animals respectively. However, there are both similarities as well as differences between cells of plants and animals. Let us see what these differences are.

Firstly, both animal and plant cells are eukaryotes which implies that they have cell nucleus containing chromosomes. Both have cell membranes surrounding the cell that controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell. Differences in these two types of cells arise because of functional differences.

One of the biggest differences between a plant and an animal cell is the presence of a cell wall made up of cellulose in plants. This allows plants to build up high pressure inside the cell without bursting. This cell wall is necessary in the case of plants as plant cells need heavy exchange of fluids through osmosis. Animal cells do not have this cell wall.

Another difference arises because of the use of photosynthesis, a process through which plants convert sunlight into food. For this purpose, plants have chloroplasts having its own DNA. This is absent in animal cells.Plant cells have a large vacuole which is present in cells’ cytoplasm. This vacuole takes up all the space in a plant cell with cell membrane encircling them. This vacuole contains waste materials, water and nutrients that plant can use or secrete whenever necessary. On the other hand animal cells have small vacuoles in comparison to plant cells that have a large vacuole. Another notable difference is that plant cells are mostly regular in size whereas animal cells vary greatly in size and shape. In general, plant cells are larger in size than animal cells. As far as shape is concerned, plant cells are rectangular in shape whereas animal cells are circular in shape.

Summary

• Because of functional differences, there are great differences between plant and animal cells.

• Plant cells have a cell wall surrounding cell membrane, whereas animal cells only have a cell membrane.

• Plant cells have chloroplasts that help in photosynthesis. These are absent in animal cells.

• Animal cells have small vacuoles in comparison to plant cells that have a large vacuole.

• Plant cells are mostly regular in size and rectangular in shape whereas animal cells vary greatly in size and shape.

• Plant cells have a large fluid sac called vacuole while animal cells have many small vacuoles.

• Plant cells are larger and rectangular whereas animal cells are smaller and circular in shape.


 
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Both plant and animal cells are eukaryotic cells, i.e., they have complex structures but the structures of both types of cells have major differences.

Animal cells do not have rigid cell walls like plant cells. This allows animal cells to form and adopt various shapes. A type of animal cell called the phagocytic cell can even absorb other structures. This ability is not inherent in plant cells.

Further, unlike animal cells, plant cells have chloroplasts for the utilization of sunlight and this is what also gives plant cells their green color. It is with the help of chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll, the plant cells perform the function of photosynthesis which is a process absent in animal cells.

Plant cells also contain a larger central vacuole (enclosed by a membrane) as compared to animal cells. Also, while animal cells depend on an analogous system of gap-junctions that allows communication between cells, the plant cells use linking pores in their cell wall to connect to each other and pass information.

 

Many types of plant cells, particularly in species like conifers and flowering plants, there is an absence of flagellae and centrioles that are found in animal cells.

Plant cells are also classified into three types. The parenchyma cells help in storage, photosynthesis-support and other functions and collenchyma cells are only present during the time of maturity and have only a primary wall. The sclerenchyma cells help in mechanical support. When it comes to animal cells, there are 210 distinct types of these in the human body.

There is another major difference between plant and animal cells. While the former turn carbon dioxide into sugar, it is the animal cells that break the sugar back down to carbon dioxide to make energy. This also reflects the cyclic functions of Nature and the interdependence of organisms through which Life on earth flourishes.

Summary

• Because of functional differences, there are great differences between plant and animal cells.

• Plant cells have a cell wall surrounding cell membrane, whereas animal cells only have a cell membrane.

• Plant cells have chloroplasts that help in photosynthesis. These are absent in animal cells.

• Animal cells have small vacuoles in comparison to plant cells that have a large vacuole.

• Plant cells are mostly regular in size and rectangular in shape whereas animal cells vary greatly in size and shape.

• Plant cells have a large fluid sac called vacuole while animal cells have many small vacuoles.

• Plant cells are larger and rectangular whereas animal cells are smaller and circular in shape.


 
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The main difference is that plant cells have a cell wall as well as a cell membrane. Animal cells only have a cell membrane.



More Details:


  1. Plant cells have cell walls, which supports a rigid (rectangular) structure. These structures are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and a variety of other materials. An animal cell does not have this cell wall; as such, the shape is more dynamic. With animal cells there is a diversity of shapes although most are roughly circular to maximize surface area.
     
  2. Plant cells have chlorophyll, the light-absorbing pigment required for photosynthesis. This pigment, which makes plants appear green, is contained in structures called chloroplasts (or more generally, plastids).
     
  3. Similarly, chlorophyll containing plant cells go through both photosynthesis and cellular respiration, while animal cells only go through cellular respiration.
     
  4. Plants cells have a large, central vacuole. While animal cells may have one or more small vacuoles, they do not take up the volume that the central vacuole does (up to 90% of the entire cell volume!). The vacuole stores water and ions, and may be used for storage of toxins.
     
  5. Animal cells have centrioles, cilia (unicelluar animal cell), and lysosomes. Plant cells have no need for centrioles because their spindle fibers connect to the cell wall.

 
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 Animal CellPlant Cell 
Nucleus:PresentPresent 
Cilia:PresentIt is very rare 
Shape:Round (irregular shape)Rectangular (fixed shape) 
Chloroplast:Animal cells don't havechloroplastsPlant cells have chloroplasts because they make their own food 
Cytoplasm:PresentPresent 
Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth and Rough):PresentPresent 
Ribosomes:PresentPresent 
Mitochondria:PresentPresent 
Vacuole:One or more small vacuoles (much smaller than plant cells).One, large central vacuole taking up 90% of cell volume. 
Centrioles:Present in all animal cellsOnly present in lower plant forms. 
Plastids:AbsentPresent 
Golgi Apparatus:PresentPresent 
Cell wall:AbsentPresent 
Plasma Membrane:only cell membranecell wall and a cell membrane 
Microtubules/ Microfilaments:PresentPresent 
Flagella:May be found in some cellsMay be found in some cells 
Lysosomes:Lysosomes occur in cytoplasm.Lysosomes usually not evident.
 

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 Both  animal  and  plant  cells have some similar structural elements. First off they are both eukaryotic, which means they have a definednucleus. The nucleus contains chromosomes. It is protected and surrounded by the cytoplasm, which is a watery or gel-like liquid. Further,  animal  and  plant  cells have a cell membrane that surrounds the  cell . This allows for the  cell  to exert control, in most cases, over what can penetrate the  cell , and what cannot.

One of the primary differences between  animal  and  plant  cells is that  plant  cells have a  cell  wall made up of cellulose. This helps the  plant  cells to allow high pressure to build inside of it, without bursting. A  plant  cell  has to be able to accept large amounts of liquid through osmosis, without being destroyed. An  animal  cell does not have this  cell  wall. If you start to fill the  animal   cell  with too much distilled water or other fluid, it will eventually pop.

Plant  cells also are different from  animal  cells because they use photosynthesis to covert sunlight into needed food for the  plant . Plant  cells have chloroplasts, which has its own DNA, essentially directing the work of the chloroplasts.

Also  plant  cells, if one could view them under the microscope, appear extremely different than an  animal  cell  because of the presence of a large vacuole, which exists in the  cell ’s cytoplasm. It usually takes up most of the room in the  cell , and the membrane of the  cell  encircles it. It contains waste materials, water, and nutrients that can be used or secreted as necessary.

Animal  cells have small vacuoles and may have numerous ones. They never have the large single vacuole that takes up most of the space in  plant  cells. As well, under the microscope  plant  cells often have a more regular shape.  Animal  cells tend to vary greatly in appearance.

The differences between  plant  and  animal  cells can become more complex, but the primary differences exist in the above-mentioned ways. To sum,  animal  and  plant  cells both have a nucleus, a cytoplasm, and a  cell  membrane.  Plant  cells also have a large  cell vacuole, chloroplasts, a  cell  wall and a regular shape. Small vacuoles, no  cell  wall, varied shapes, and the absence of chloroplasts characterize  animal  cells.

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  PLANT CELL

  1. Larger in size
  2. Cell wall is present
  3. Plastids are present
  4. Vacuoles are large

ANIMAL CELL

  1. Smaller in size
  2. Cell wall is absent
  3. Plastids are absent
  4. Vacuoles are small

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animal cell:

1. they are generally small in size.

2. cell wall is absent.

3. except the protozoan euglena, no animal cell possesses plastids.

4. vacuoles in animal cells are many, small and temporary.

5. animal cells have a single highly complex and prominent golgi apparatus.

6. animal cells have centrosome and centrioles.

plant cell:

1. they are larger in size than animal cell.

2. the plasma membrane of plant cells is surrounded by a rigid cell wall of cellulose.

3. plastids are present.

4. most mature plant cells have a permanent and large central sap vacuole.

5. plant cells have many simpler units of golgi apparatus, called dictysomes.

6. plant cells lack centrosome and centrioles.

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 1.Plant cells are larger than animal cells.

2.Plant cells have chloroplasts unlike animal cells
3.Plant cells have a cell wall unlike animal cells.
4.Animal cells have a lot of lysosomes unlike plant cells.
5.Animal cells have a centrosome unlike plant cells
6.Plant cells have plasticids unlike animal cells
7.Vacuoles are conspicuous in plant cells than animal cells i.e. large central vacuole in plant cells
8. Animal cells can be phagocytic (engulf other cells) unlike plant cells 
9.Cells of Higher plants lack centrioles unlike animal cells.
10.Plant cells have plasmodesmata which links pores in the cell wall allow and communication between adjacent cells unlike animal cells.
 
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Differences Similarities

  Animal Cell Plant Cell
Cell wall: Absent Present (formed of cellulose)
Shape: Round (irregular shape) Rectangular (fixed shape)
Vacuole: One or more small vacuoles (much smaller than plant cells). One, large central vacuole taking up 90% of cell volume.
Centrioles: Present in all animal cells Only present in lower plant forms.
Chloroplast: Animal cells don 't have chloroplasts Plant cells have chloroplasts because they make their own food
Cytoplasm: Present Present
Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth and Rough): Present Present
Ribosomes: Present Present
Mitochondria: Present Present
Plastids: Absent Present
Golgi Apparatus: Present Present
Plasma Membrane: only cell membrane cell wall and a cell membrane
Microtubules/ Microfilaments: Present Present
Flagella: May be found in some cells May be found in some cells
Lysosomes: Lysosomes occur in cytoplasm. Lysosomes usually not evident.
Nucleus: Present Present
Cilia: Present It is very rare

 

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