Explain how electron are transported to the final electron acceptor.

The electrons are transported to the final electron acceptor through electron transport chain.

Electron Transport Chain (ETS)

  • NADH and FADH2 are oxidised to release the energy stored in them.

  • Electrons are passed from one carrier to another, and finally to oxygen, resulting in the formation of water.

  • Electrons produced by NADH in the mitochondrial matrix are oxidised by Complex I (NADH dehydrogenase).

  • Electrons are then transferred to ubiquinone, located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Ubiquinone receives reducing equivalents through Complex II (FADH2).

  • Reduced ubiquinone (ubiquinol) is then oxidised by the transfer of electrons from Complex III (cytochrome bc1 complex) to cytochrome c.

  • Cytochrome c transfers the electrons between Complex III and Complex IV (Cytochrome c − oxidase complex consists of cyt a and a3, along with two copper centres).

  • In the course of passing from one carrier to another, electrons couple with Complex V (ATP synthase) and produce ATP.

  • Oxidation of 1 NADH produces 3 ATPs.
    Oxidation of 1 FADH2 produces 2 ATPs.

  • Role of oxygen in the terminal stage of ETS: It acts as the final hydrogen acceptor; removes hydrogen from the process and drives the whole process

For video, kindly refer the study material of chapter no. 14.

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