# Explain working of sonar. (theory) in simple language.

SONAR stands for sound navigation and ranging . SONAR is a device which is used by ships and submarines to locate position of other vessels in the ocean. These are of two types. One is passive, which only detects the incoming. Another one is active SONAR which transmits sound pulses and detects the reflected echoes to detect presence of other sea vessels.

Principle behind SONAR is reflection of sound.

The sound sent is reflected back from the sea bed which is known as echo.

Let the depth of the ocean be D

For perpendicular focusing of the sonar

V = 2D/t

=>D = Vt/2

Where V = speed of sound in water

t = time after the echo is detected.

Thus, depth of the ocean is evaluated.

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The acronym of sonar is SOund Navigation And Ranging. It consists of a transmitter to transmit and produce ultrasonic waves  and a detector  that detects the reflected back waves, which is converted intoelectronic signals.

The distance(d) of the underwater object is calculated from the time(t) taken by the sound wave to return with speed(v)  is given by 2d= v x t. This method is called "echo-ranging".

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SONAR stands for sound navigation and ranging . SONAR is a device which is used by ships and submarines to locate position of other vessels in the ocean. These are of two types. One is passive, which only detects the incoming. Another one is active SONAR which transmits sound pulses and detects the reflected echoes to detect presence of other sea vessels.

Principle behind SONAR is reflection of sound.

The sound sent is reflected back from the sea bed which is known as echo.

Let the depth of the ocean be D

For perpendicular focusing of the sonar

V = 2D/t

=>D = Vt/2

Where V = speed of sound in water

t = time after the echo is detected.

Thus, depth of the ocean is evaluated

• 3

SONAR

SONAR (acronym for Sound Navigation and Ranging) is an acoustic device that is installed in ships to measure depth, direction, and speed of underwater objects such as icebergs, sea rocks, shipwrecks, spy submarines, etc. It uses high frequency ultrasound for this purpose and works on the principle of echo. It consists of two main devices called transducer and detector. Transducer produces and transmits ultrasonic sound and detector receives the ultrasound that is reflected from the bottom of a sea or an underwater object. SONAR measures the echo of the ultrasound and calculates the depth or distance of underwater objects using the relation,

 2d = v Ã— t
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