Find the remainder when x 3 + 3x 2 + 3x + 1 is divided by

(i) x + 1 (ii) (iii) x

(iv) x + π (v) 5 + 2x

(i) x + 1

By long division,

Therefore, the remainder is 0.

(ii)

By long division,

Therefore, the remainder is.

(iii) x

By long division,

Therefore, the remainder is 1.

(iv) x + π

By long division,

Therefore, the remainder is

(v) 5 + 2x

By long division,

Therefore, the remainder is

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