how are protonephridia and nephridia different functionally?give example of each.

Dear Student,
  • Protonephridia or flame cells are the excretory structures in Platyhelminthes (Flatworms, e.g., Planaria), rotifers, some annelids and the cephalochordate – Amphioxus
  • Nephridia are the tubular excretory structures of earthworms and other annelids. 
  • They differ structurally but perform excretory function.

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