How does cactus perform photosynthesis as it does not have any leaves?

A cactus is made up of a stem, the skin, roots, and spines.In the absence of leaves, the stem carries  out the process of photosynthesis.The stem contain the chlorophyll pigment and the stomata for the exchange of gases .

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This adaptation helps them in reducing the loss of water by transpiration.In these plants, stems perform the function of photosynthesis. Stems are covered with a waxy layer, which reduces the loss of water.

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