list any four methods of contraception used by humans. how does their use have a direct effect on the health and prosperity of the family?

 The various methods employed for birth control are called contraceptive methods.
  • Natural methods (involving behavioural strategy) such as coitus interruptus, lactational amenorrhea , and periodic abstinence
  • Other method include barrier methods, intrauterine devices (IUDs), oral contraceptives and sterilisation method
Use of these contraceptive devices helps in preventing unwanted pregnancies. They can prevent the chances of frequent pregnancies which otherwise affect the health of a mother. They help in family planning by controlling the number of children in a family. So, that  proper  care is provided to the children and that also reduces the chances of poverty.Use of contraceptive devices also reduces the chances of getting sexually transmitted diseases such As AIDS. In this way, the birth control methods play  important roles in  the health and prosperity of the family. 

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Birth control includes barrier methods, hormonal contraception, intrauterine devices (IUDs), sterilization, and behavioral methods.


Male condoms in the rolled-up position

Barrier contraceptives are devices that attempt to prevent pregnancy by physically preventing sperm from entering the uterus. They include: male condoms, female condoms, cervical caps, diaphragms, and contraceptive sponges with spermicide.


Hormonal contraceptives inhibit ovulation and fertilization.[21] These include oral pills, subdermal implants, and injectable contraceptives as well as the patch, hormonal IUDs and the vaginal ring. The most commonly used hormonal contraceptive is the combined oral contraceptive pill—commonly known as "the pill"—which includes a combination of an estrogen and a progestin (progestogen)

Intrauterine devices

The contemporary intrauterine device (IUD) is a small 'T'-shaped birth control device, containing either copper or progesterone, which is inserted into the uterus. IUDs are a form of long-acting reversible contraception, the most effective type of reversible birth control.[27] As of 2002, IUDs were the most widely used form of reversible contraception, with nearly 160 million users worldwide.[28] Evidence supports both effectiveness and safety in adolescents


Surgical sterilization is available in the form of tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men.[9] There are no significant long term side effects and tubal ligation decreases the risk of ovarian cancer.[9] Some women regret such a decision: about 5% over 30 years, and about 20% under 30.[9] Short term complications are less likely from a vasectomy than a tubal ligation.[9] Neither method offers protection from sexually transmitted infections


The human population is
increasing tremendously. Therefore, to regulate the population growth by regulating
reproduction has become a necessary demand in the present times. Various
contraceptive devices have been devised to reduce unwanted pregnancies, which
help in bringing down the increased birth rate and hence, in checking population

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mechanical barrier:

this is used by males and females to prevent the entry of sperms into the female tract. this is the only method which protect us from stds.

example:condoms in males and cervical caps in female.

chemical barrier:

this is a method where chemicals are taken orally by females: exampl: oral pills. it brings about hormonal changes in the femaleand prevent ovulation and fertilisation. however it can be disadvantageous since it can lead to hormonal imbalances and side efects.

lntrauterine contraceptive device:

ex:copper T

this method involves the placement of a loop made of copper in the shape of T in the mouth of the uterus. this method prevents the implantation of the embyo in the uterus as the copper ions released creates an unsuitable environment.

surgical method:

ex: vasectomy and tubectomy

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