what are characterstic features of pteridophyta?
Division of plant which includes ferns and fern allies is termed as pteridophytes. The various characteristics of pteridophytes are:
1) They reproduce by making spores. Unlike other plants, they do not produce seeds. Antheridia and archegonia are the male and the female organ respectively. Eggs in the archegonia are fertilized by the sperms produced by the antheridia to produce the zygote.
2) They grow in a wide range of habitats such as rock crevices, deserts, mountains and in moist and shady areas.
4) They have leaves, stem and roots but they do not have flowers. They have specialized leaves known as sporophylls which produce spores and have fibrous roots.
5) They are vascular plants i.e. they contain xylem and phloem which helps in the transportation of water and nutrients.
6) They have a complicate life cycle which includes alternation of generations. Their life cycle includes a haploid phase followed by diploid phase.
They are cryptogamae and have naked embroyes called spores. They need water for fertilization and hence like bryophyta are called amphibians of plant kingdom. They have vascular tissues and plant organs are well differentiated. However, they cannot produce seeds.
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Pteridophyta is a phylum of plants widely known as ferns. More than 12,000 different species of ferns are distributed worldwide. They are distinguished from flowering plants by not producing seeds. Pteridophyta members reproduce through spores. Ferns were some of Earth's first land plants. They are vascular and have true leaves.
Ferns are strongly distinguished from other plants by their method of reproduction. Instead of producing seeds, they reproduce by making spores--microscopic structures that combine with sperm to produce a new generation. Spores are produced that develop into gametophytes. The gametophyte grows into a tiny heart-shaped structure that develops male antheridia and female archegonia that produce sperm and eggs. Sperm from the antheridia fertilize the egg in the archegonia and the gametophyte will develop into a sporophyte--an adult fern.
Ferns are usually found in border habitats that other plants find hard to survive in. They grow in rock crevices, deserts, on mountains and in moist and shady forests. Some species are epiphytes that grow without soil on the branches of trees.
Ferns have fibrous roots. They are generally considered non-woody plants, but some giant ferns can be considered semi-woody. They have green leaves that provide energy through photosynthesis. New leaves grow out of a tight spiral called a fiddlehead. They also have specialized leaves that produce spores called sporophylls. Ferns grow from a rhizome that sits just on top of the soil.
General Characteristics :-
1. These plants have less developed vascular bundles.
2. They are the first terrestrial plants.
3. They have roots,stem and leaves.
4. They do not have fruits and flowers.
5. Reproduction in these plants takes place through spore formation.
6. These plants posses Anthredia and Archigonia which contain male and female gametes respectively for sexual reproduction.
7. Examples :- Fern, Selagenella, Horsetails and Marsilia.