what were the causes of revolt of 1857
Please follow the given link:
The cause of the revolt was that the british lied the indian sepoys that the cartrages were'nt greased with the fat of cow and goat and the hindu sepoys were not ready to use them as they considered cow as their mother and they cant even think of eating or touching their mouth with its fat. In the cartrages the sepoys had to open it with their mouths which they cound'nt because of their religious beliefs.
This was the main reason which encouraged the sepoys to rebel agianst the company
The causes for the revolt of 1987 was can categorized under 1. Economic Causes 2. Political Causes 3. Social 4. Religion 5. Military and 6. Immediate causes.1. Economic Causes:
The most important cause of popular discontent was the British policy of economically exploiting India. This hurt all sections of society. The peasants suffered due to high revenue demands and the strict revenue collection policy. Artisans and craftsmen were ruined by the large-scale influx of cheap British manufactured goods into India which, in turn, made their hand-made goods uneconomical to produce. People who made a living by following religious and cultural pursuits lost their source of livelihood due to the withdrawal of royal patronage caused by the displacement of the old ruling classes. A corrupt and unresponsive administration added to the miseries of the people.2. Political Causes:
The British policy of territorial annexations led to the displacement of a large number of rulers and chiefs. The vigorous application of the policies of Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse angered the ruling sections of the society. Rani Lakshmi Bai and Nana Sahib became bitter enemies of the British and led to the revolt in their respective territories.
The annexation of Awadh, on grounds of misgovernment, was greatly resented. The Nawabs of Awadh had always been loyal to the British. The annexation was widely seen as a blatant act of back-stabbing by the British. It deeply hurt the sentiments of the Companys sepoys because most of them came from Awadh. Moreover, even under the new regime, the people of Awadh got no relief from oppression. Peasants had to pay even higher revenue and additional taxes were imposed. The British provided no alternative source of employment to the people who lost their jobs due to the dissolution of the Nawabs administration.3. Social Causes:
The social reforms introduced by the British were looked upon with suspicion by the conservative sections of the Indian society. Reforms such as abolition of sati, legalization of widow remarriage and extension of western education to women were looked upon as examples of interference in the social customs of the country. The social discrimination faced by the Indians due to the British attitude of racial superiority also led to much resentment. Educated Indians were denied promotions and appointments to high office. This turned them against the British.4. Religious Causes:
A major cause of the outbreak of the revolt was the fear among the people that the British government was determined to destroy their religion and convert Indians to Christianity. The increasing activities of the Christian missionaries and the actual conversions made by them were taken as a proof of this fear. The policy of taxing lands belonging to temples and mosques lent further support to this idea. The belief that their religion was under threat, united all sections of society against a common enemy.5. Military Causes:
Indian soldiers formed seven-eighth of the total British troops in India. As they were an integral part of the Indian society, they too suffered the consequences of the oppressive British rule. Besides, they had other grievances. The Indian sepoys were looked upon as inferior beings and treated with contempt by their British officers. They were paid much less than the British soldiers. All avenues of the promotion were closed to them as all the higher army posts were reserved for the British.
There were other specific and more immediate causes for the discontent among the sepoys. The annexation of Awadh inflamed their strong feelings against foreign rule. They were also influenced by the general fear that their religion was in danger. The order that forbade the sepoys from wearing caste and sectarian marks hurt their sentiments deeply. So also the Act of 1816 which required the new recruits to travel overseas, if needed. The Hindu sepoys resented this as according to the popular Hindu belief, travel across the sea led to a loss of caste. Another cause of sepoy discontent was the withdrawal of the Foreign Service allowance (batta), which the sepoys were getting for fighting outside the country.6. Immediate Cause:
Discontent and resentment against British rule had been growing among the Indians for a long time. By AD 1857, the stage was set for a massive revolt. Only a spark was needed to set the country ablaze. That spark was provided by as small a thing as a rifle cartridge.
At this time, the Enfield rifle was introduced in the army. Its cartridges were covered with a greased paper cover. This greased cover had to be bitten off before the cartridge could be loaded into the rifle. The news spread that the grease was made of cow and pig fat. As the Hindus consider the cow sacred and the Muslims do not eat pits meat, both these communities were enraged at such a blatant attempt to harm their religion. This incident, popularly known as the Greased Cartridges Incident, became the immediate cause of the revolt.
The first soldier to protest against using the greased cartridges was Mangal Pandey. He belonged to the 34thInfantry stationed at Barrackpore. He refused to use the cartridges and was subsequently hanged. On 24 April 1857, some soldiers stationed at Meerut also refused to use the cartridges. On 9 May 1857, they were severely punished for this. This incident sparked off a general mutiny among the sepoys of Meerut. On 10 May 1857, these rebel soldiers killed their British officers, released their imprisoned comrades and hoisted the flag of revolt. This was the official beginning of the Great Revolt. The soldiers then set off for Delhi. On 11 May 1857, they reached Delhi. Here, they were joined by the local infantry. The rebels seized Delhi and declared the Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar as the emperor of India.
The main cause of 1857 revolt was that the british used cow's and pig's fat for making catridges.As cows and pigs were considered to be religious animals,the sepoys refused to use these catridges.The british were removing the sepoys from their job for disobeying them.A sepoy named mangal pandey was about to shoot three british officials.because of this reason mangal pandey was hanged on march 1857 by the british.this was the main cause for the rebellion.The another reason was Indian soldiers were sent toburma to fight.durin that time as per indians they would loose their religious policies if they cross overseas.the revolt started on may 1857 in meerut and spread to Delhi
THE CAUSES OF REVOLT OF 1857 WAS HATERATE AMONG BRITISHERS.THE ENFIELD RIFLE WAS INTRODUCED IN THE ARMY IN 1856.THE CARTRADGES WERE SMEARED WITH GREASE AND COVERED WITH CAPS WHICH HAD TO BE TAKEN OFF BEFORE USE BY MOUTH.THE SEPOYS BELIEVED THAT THE GREASE WAS MADE OFCOW AND PIG FAT AND THEY REFUSED TO USE THEM SINCE THEY HURT THE RELIGIOUS SENTIMENTS OF HINDUS AND MUSLIMS
There are six types of causes of the Revolt of 1857
1 Political Cause-Nana Saheb and Bahadur Shah Jafar removed from their family seat.
2 Economic Cause-The wealth extracted from India was Fuelling to Britainand land revenue was also introduced.
3 Social Cause-Britishers never tried to be a part of Indian Society.They remained perpectual foreigners.
4 Religious Cause-Britishers forced the citizens to convert into Christianism.
5 Military Cause-Britishers forced Indian sepoys to travel abroad as well as they ill treated them.
6 Immediate Cause-Enfield rifle was introduced which containedbeef tallow and pig fat.Mangal Pandey refused to use Enfield rifle and was arrested and executed.His refuge encouraged the Indian Sepoys.
There are six types of causes of the Revolt of 1857
1Political Cause-Nana Saheb and Bahadur Shah Jafar removed from their family seat.
2Economic Cause-The wealth extracted from India was Fuelling to Britainand land revenue was also introduced.
3Social Cause-Britishers never tried to be a part of Indian Society.They remained perpectual foreigners.
4Religious Cause-Britishers forced the citizens to convert into Christianism.
5Military Cause-Britishers forced Indian sepoys to travel abroad as well as they ill treated them.
6Immediate Cause-Enfield rifle was introduced which containedbeef tallow and pig fat.Mangal Pandey refused to use Enfield rifle and was arrested and executed.His refuge encouraged the Indian Sepoys.
The cause of the Revolt of 1857 are:- 1. Political Cause (Nawabs lose their power)
- Since the mid eighteenth century, nawabs and rajas had seen their authority and honour.
- Residents had been stationed in many courts, the freedom of the rulers reduced, their armed forces disbanded, and their revenues and territories were taken away by stages.
- Many ruling families tried to negotiate with the company to protect their interests.
Ex: - Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi wanted the company to recognize her adopted son as the heir to the kingdom after the death of her husband. Nana sahib, the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II, pleaded that he be given his fathers pension when he later died. However, the company, confident of its superiority and military power, turned down these please. 2. Economic Cause
- In the countryside peasants and zamindars resented the high taxes and the rigid methods of revenue collection. Many failed to pay back their loans to the moneylenders and gradually lost the lands they had tilled for generations.
- Some of the new rules, moreover, violated their religious sensibilities and beliefs.
- Sepoys also reacted to what was happening in the countryside. Many of them were peasants and had families living in the villages. So the anger of the peasants quickly spread among the sepoys.
3. Social Cause:-
- The British believed that Indian society had to be reformed laws were passed to stop the practice of sati and encourage the remarriage of widows. English language and education was actively promoted.
- After 1830, the company allowed Christian missionaries to function freely in its domain and even own land and property.
- In 1850, a new law was passed to make conversion to Christianity easier. Many Indian began feeling that the British were destroying their religion, their social customs and their traditional way of life.
4. Military Cause:-
- The Indian sepoys in the employ of the company also had reason for discontent as their pay, allowances and conditions of service.
- They also didnt get enough promotional avenues and overseas allowances.
5. Immediate Cause
- New cartridges were being coated with the fat of cows and pigs which the Indian thought was destroying their traditional culture.