wht is ringing or girdling experiments?

what is water potential

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 it is a concept  fundamentalto understanding water movement

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Girdling, also called ring barking or ring barking, is the complete removal of a strip of bark (consisting of cork cambium, phloem, cambium and sometimes going into the xylem) from around the entire circumference of either a branch or trunk of a woody plant. Girdling results in the death of wood tissues above the damage

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It was an experiment done to identify the tissue which transports food. In it , a layer of the bark containing the phloem layer is removed. In the absence of this tissue the part just above the removed portion becomes swollen as there was no transport of food downwards. This shows that phloem transports food to different parts of the plant.

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Experiments now called girdling experiments were performed, in which a ring of bark is removed from a woody plant. Girdling, or ringing, does not immediately interfere with upward movement of water in the xylem, but it does interrupt phloem movement.
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