why is irigation important for crop? describe in brief any four different kinds of irrigation systems adopted to supply water to agricultural land .

this answer give me by expert answer

The importance of irrigation for crops are:
1) It helps to maintain moisture in the soil which is necessary for the germination of seeds.
2) It is required for the growth of the roots of the plant.
3) It is essential for the absorption of nutrients from the soil.
4) It provides the plant with hydrogen and oxygen

Different methods of irrigation are:
1) Canal system:
Canals take irrigation water from rivers, storage lakes, dams or barrages to agricultural lands. They form an extensive irrigation
system.
2) River lift system:
It is useful in those areas where canal flow is insufficient or irregular due to inadequate water release. In this system, water is
directly drawn from rivers for supplementing irrigation in the areas near to rivers.
3) Drip irrigation:
In this method, the pipe providing the plant with irrigation water runs along with the surface of the plants. This provides the water directly in the roots of the plant
4) Sprinkle system:
In this method, the water is sprinkled all over the fields with the help of a sprinkler.

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IRRIGATION:- The supply of water to crops at different intervals is called irrigation.

IRRIGATION IS NECESSARY BECAUSE:-

 

Water is important for proper growth

and development of flowers, fruits and

seeds of plants. Water is absorbed by

the plant roots. Along with water,

minerals and fertilisers are also

absorbed. Plants contain nearly 90%

water. Water is essential because

germination of seeds does not take place

under dry conditions. Nutrients

dissolved in water get transported to

each part of the plant. Water also

protects the crop from both frost and

hot air currents. To maintain the

moisture of the soil for healthy crop

growth, fields have to be watered regularly.

 

IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

Sources of irrigation :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The sources of irrigation are— wells, tubewells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams and canals.

Traditional Methods of Irrigation

(i) moat (pulley-system)

(ii) chain pump

(iii)

and

(iv)

dhekli, rahat (Lever system)

Modern Methods of Irrigation

(i) Sprinkler System

(ii) Drip system

 

 

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In areas with unreliable rainfall, watering crops is essential! Imagine if an industry had to depend entirely on the whims of mother nature: if it rains, we'll make a profit, if it doesn't, we'll lose...

Irrigation ensures a constant supply of water, which is essential not only to crops growing at all, but also to the quality of the crop. You can't really eat potatoes which have received patchy watering, and many other crops would not form properly in the absence of water.

 

Irrigation has been around for as long as humans have been cultivating plants. Man's first invention after he learned how to grow plants from seeds was probably a bucket. Ancient people must have been strong from having to haul buckets full of water to pour on their first plants. Pouring water on fields is still a common irrigation method today -- but other, more efficient and mechanized methods are also used.

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Drip Irrigation Technology to save Water and Enhance Crop Yields

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Drip Irrigation Technology

In India, the irrigated area consists of about 36 per cent of the net sown area. Presently, the agricultural sector accounts for about 83 per cent of all water uses. The remaining uses include 5, 3, 6 and 3 per cent respectively, by domestic, industrial and energy sectors and other consumers. Increasing competition with the other water users in the future would limit the water availability for expanding irrigated area. In traditional surface irrigation methods, the losses in water conveyance and application are large. These losses can be considerably reduced by adopting drip and sprinkler irrigation methods. Among all the irrigation methods, the drip irrigation is the most efficient and it can be practised in a large variety of crops, especially in vegetables, orchard crops, flowers and plantation crops. In drip irrigation, water is applied near the plant root through emitters or drippers, on or below the soil surface, at a low rate varying from 2 - 20 lit res per hour. The soil moisture is kept at an optimum level with frequent irrigations. Drip irrigation results in a very high water application efficiency of about 90-95 per cent. A typical drip irrigation system is shown in fig. 1.

History of Drip Irrigation

 

History of Drip Irrigation

History of Drip Irrigation

The use of drip irrigation can be traced back to the ancient custom in certain parts of India of irrigating a tulsi plant kept in the courtyard. During the summer months, the plant was irrigated by a hanging pitcher containing water and a minute hole at its bottom to allow the trickling of water on to the plant. The tribal farmers of Arunachal Pradesh practised a primitive form of drip irrigation system using a slender bamboo as the conduit for water flow. The use of drippers in sub-surface irrigation network was first experimented with in Germany in 1869. The conspicuous growth of the petrochemical industry during and after the 1950s facilitated manufacturing of plastic pipes at a cost much cheaper than the cost of metallic or cement concrete pipes. Plastic pipes are convenient for water conveyance under pressure and the plastic material are easily formed into the desired configuration. These features of plastic made the field-scale use of drip irrigation practicable. The drip system was developed for field crops in Israel in the early 1960s and in Australia and North America in the late 1960s.The area under drip irrigation system in the USA is about 1 M ha, followed by India, Spain, Israel, etc. 
In India, there has been a tremendous growth in the area under drip irrigation during the last 15 years. At present, around 3.51akh ha area is under drip irrigation with the efforts of the Government of India, while it was only 40 ha in 1960. Maharashtra (94,000 ha), Karnataka (66,000 ha) and Tamil Nadu (55,000 ha) are some of the states where large areas have been brought under drip irrigation. Many crops are irrigated by the drip method in India with the tree crops occupying the maximum percentage of the total area under drip irrigation, followed by vine crops, vegetables, field crops, flowers and other crops, as shown in fig. 2.

 

Growth Potential for Drip & Micro-Irrigation Systems

  • Drip irrigation system is suitable for all orchard and vegetable crops.
  • Drip irrigation system has also been successfully employed for close growing field crops including onion and okra (fig 3).

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 thubs up pls ...... vote 

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Agriculture in India

Introduction

Agriculture in India has a long history dating back to ten thousand years. Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and logging accounted for 16.6% of the GDP in 2007, employed 60% of the total workforceand despite a steady decline of its share in the GDP, is still the largest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic development of India.

India is the largest producer in the world of milk, cashew nuts, coconuts, tea, ginger, turmeric and black pepper, and has the world’s largest cattle population (281 million).It is the second largest producer of wheat, rice, sugar, groundnut and inland fish. It is the third largest producer of tobacco.India accounts for 10% of the world fruit production with first rank in the production of banana and sapota. India’s population is growing faster than its ability to produce rice and wheat.

There are 11 types of agriculture in India:

  1. shifting agriculture
  2. subsistence farming
  3. intensive agriculture
  4. extensive agriculture
  5. commercial agriculture
  6. plantation agriculture
  7. mixed farming
  8. monoculture
  9. dry farming
  10. crop rotation
  11. mixed farming

The success of any agriculture is influenced by the availability of proper irrigational facilities. The farmers are still depending heavily on rainfall, specifically monsoon.

Irrigation is a method by which water is supplied to plants from the outside or the artificial source of water where natural precipitation falls short. Irrigation is indispensable to Indian agriculture. In India rainfall is caused by the influence of the summer monsoon; it is seasonal and unpredictable. Often it is unreliable. But agriculture needs a regular supply of water by irrigation

Seasonal rainfall: The Southwest monsoon, which advances from the southern seas in summer, brings rainfall. For this, most of the rainfall in India occurs in summer. In dry winter, , agriculture suffers from scanty rainfall. For this season, irrigation is indispensable.

  • Uneven distribution of rainfall: The summer rainfall, which occurs in India, is not evenly distributed all over the country. The areas receiving scanty rainfall needsirrigation even during summer monsoon.
  • Better land use: With irrigation, cultivation can be done well all the year round. It allows better use of land.

  • Introduction of new method of cultivation: In recent years, new agricultural methods have been employed. New high yielding seeds are used to get more crops; even harvesting periods are being reduced to minimum, so that two or more harvesting can be raised in a year. This new agriculture needs more waters. For these, irrigation is essential.

The Methods of Irrigation Practiced in India

  • Wells and Tube-wells irrigation: Well irrigation is the popular method of irrigation all over the country. It is widespread in the northern plains, coastal plains and some parts of the peninsular India where ground water is available. Wells and tube wells irrigation are widely practiced in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Maharashtra.
  • Tank irrigation: The regions where wells and tube-wells and cannot be dug out owing to stony ground and regions where subsoil or ground-water is not available, rain-waters are collected in the tanks or reservoirs and are used for irrigationTank irrigation is common in southern India. Tank irrigation is widespread in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Canal irrigation: Canal lead irrigation water from rivers or storage reservoirs.
  • Inundation canals: These canals lead off water from a river during flood. These are simple, but do not provide water all the year round.
  • Perennial canals: These canals lead off water from a river all the year round. There are also canals, which are fed by water stored behind a large dam or barrage.Modern multipurpose river valley projects, which build up dams, not only provide water for irrigation, but also help to control floods, and generate hydroelectric power.

Major Crops of India

 

  • Kharif crops: The crops, which grow during the Kharif season, are known as Kharif Crops.Kharif crops are rice, millets, sugarcane etc. These crops are harvested in winter.
  • Rabbi crops: The crops, which grow during Rabi season, are known as Rabi CropsRabbi season begins in autumn. The chief rabbi crops are wheat, barley, gram, pulses, linseed and mustard. These crops are garneted in spring season.
  • Cash crops: The Crops, which earn money, particularly the foreign exchange, are known as Cash Crops. Tea, jute, cotton etc., are main Cash Crops in India.
  • Plantation cropsPlantation Crops are those, which yield crops over a period of years from planted trees or bushes in garden like farmlands.

Rice

Rice is the most important food-grain of India. It is the staple food of the country where rainfall exceeds 100 cm. India ranks second in the production of rice, after China.Climatic conditions of Rice is a crop of the Tropical Monsoon lamed. It requires hot and humid climate. It needs temperature of over 16 degree C to 20 degree C for its cultivation. The temperature must be higher during growing season. It thrives well in plenty of bright sunshine with an average temperature of 27 degree C and water. Rice requires abundant rainfall, ranging from 150 cm to 200 cm. plenty of water should remain standing on the ground up to 5 cm to 10 cm in the rice-field in the earlier part of its growing season. Rice requires flooded fields. Extensive plains and lowlands provide excellent conditions for paddy cultivation. On hills and mountains, rice is grown on terraces. Rice grows on a wide variety of soils. But alluvial loan with sub-soil of clay is ideal. Because the clay like impermeable sub-soil holds water to stand in the fields. Level lands with alluvial soils of the river valley and deltas are ideal for rice cultivation. The rice cultivation requires cheap and abundant labor, as most of the works in rice fields, such as sowing, transplanting and harvesting are done by hand.

Wheat

Wheat is a rabbi crop in this country. India ranks fourth in the production of wheat in the world. Favorable Geographical Condition for Wheat Cultivation: In India, wheat is a winter crop. Wheat requires a moderate cool climate with moderate rain. In India, it is grown in winter. It needs temperature 10 degree C to 15 degree C for its cultivation. It thrives well in an average temperature of 16-degree C. Warm and sunny weather is essential at the time of ripening. Wheat requires a rainfall of 50 cm to 100 cm during the growing season. Too much rain is injurious to the plant. On irrigated lands, a rainfall of 40 cm to 50 cm is sufficient.
Light rainfall and cloudiness before the grain ripens increase the productivity. Alluvial level plainsare ideal for wheat cultivation. Slightly rolling plains are also suitable. Plains should be well drained so that water cannot stand there. Wheat requires fertile alluvial soil. Clay loamy soils or even black cotton soils are suitable. Soil should retain moisture. A certain amount of lime in the soil is beneficial. Labor factors are not as important in the wheat cultivation as in the case of rice. However, labor is essential for the cultivation. The other requirements of wheat cultivation include(i) irrigation, (ii) high yielding varieties of seeds and (iii) capitals.

Tea

Tea is an important beverage. It is popular drink in India and abroad. Tea is the most important cash crop in India. Favorable Geographical Conditions for Tea Cultivation: The tea plant is essentially a Tropical one. Tea plant needs a hot and wet climate. Temperature: It requires temperature between 10 degree C and 35 degree C; but the areas where the summer temperature averages about 25 degree C are most favorable for its growth. The tea plant needs a rainfall varying between 150 cm and 200 cm. The rainfall should be well distributed throughout the year. Heavy dew and high humidity cause rapid growth of new leaves. Other weather conditions: The tea plant needs a shade from the direct sunlight. For this, in between the bushes special shade- trees are grown. Stagnant water is harmful for tea plant. Hence, mountain and hill slopes are preferred. The tea grown at higher elevation has better flavors and taste. Tea requires fertile soils, rich in nitrogen and iron. Sandy loams are the best for its growth. Soils of the forested land are rich in organic matter. It is an ideal soil. Plenty of cheap is efficient labor is needed; because, picking of leaves and preparing them for manufacture involve a great deal of work to be done by hand; women play a key role in the plucking of two leaves-and-a-bud.

Coffee

Coffee is the second most popular beverage of India. Its cultivation is confined in South India. Favorable Geographical Conditions for the Cultivation: Coffee is grown on the tropical highlands. Coffee is a typical highland crop of the Tropics. It requires temperature between 16 degree C and 28 degree C all the year round. It is sensitive to cold and frost. Direct sunrays are injurious to the plant; it is often grown in the shades of other trees. The coffee plant needs a rainfall ranging between 125 cm and 200 cm. The rainfall should be well distributed throughout the year. Hilly slopes are suitable for coffee plantation; because, the land can be kept free from water logging. In fact, the mountain slopes at elevations varying from 500-1800 meters in the tropical highlands are the best for its plantation. The coffee plant needs deep loamy soil formed from weathered lava. Coffee soils in India belong to red and later tic soils. They are rich in iron and organic matter. Coffee cultivation needs plenty of labor for planting, seeding transplanting, plucking the coffee cherries, and processing of coffee in the factory. In India, most of the coffee grown, belongs to the Arabic or the Roberta verities. The Arabic a variety is of superior quality.

Cotton

Cotton is a leading fibred crop and the most important commercial crop in India. Favorable Geographical Conditions for cotton cultivation: Cotton is essentially a tropical crop; but it is also grown in subtropical regions where there is no frost. Cotton plant requires medium temperature and rainfall. It needs summer temperatures between 20 degree C and 30 Degree C. Abundant sunshine are necessary during the growth of the plant. The plant requires rainfall of 50 cm to 80 cm. In areas of low rainfall, cotton is grown with the help of irrigation.During the period of fruiting, warm days and cool nights are required. Frost is injurious to its growth. well-drained alluvial plainsare ideal for cotton production. Slightly sloping plains are also used for its cultivation. Good drainage is essential, because the plant does not tolerate water logging.It thrives best in light alluvial soils, rich in lime or black lava soils. That recur soil of the Deccan is very much suitable for its quality of retaining moisture. Cotton cultivation needs plenty of cheap and co-operative labor, as most of the work in the field is done by hand. It is needed for picking cotton bolls as well as other processes, such as, for ginning, pressing and packing.

Jute


Jute is a fibred crop; it is inferior to cotton. It is one of the most important cash crops of eastern India and is popularly known as the ‘golden fibre’ for its colors and high cash value. Favorable Geographical Conditions for Growth: Jute is essentially a Tropical Monsoon crop. Jute needs a hot and humid climate. It grows is India under the following agro-climatic conditions. It grows best in areas having a minimum temperature of 27 degree C during the period of growth. The jute plant requires a rainfall of 170 cm to 250 cm evenly distributed during the growing period. Plenty of clean water is also required after growing period for retting and washing. The plant requires a high relative humidity between 80 and 90 per cent. Jute requires flooded fields. Extensive plains and lowlands provide excellent conditions for jute cultivation. Jute is grown in clay loams. It grows well on alluvial soil found in the flood plains and deltas of rivers. Annual floods of the rivers supply the silt and new alluvium necessary for the plant, as jute is a soil- exhausting crop. Plenty of cheap labor is also essential as most of the work (sowing, weeding, harvesting, retting, washing etc.) is done by hand.

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why thumps down ..

 

sorry sir if it is wrong ..   it is  extra imformation .. only 

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