why the ryots in the bengal refused to grow indigo
Blue Dye was in immense demand in Europe. This compelled the British to push the Indian farmers to produce more indigo instead of the food grains on their lands. This excess cultivation of indigo not only reduced the soil fertility but also made the food grains less available. Moreover, the commercial farming did not help the farmers to earn high profits. The poor farmers were unable to return the loans that were provided to them to begin the indigo farming. To pay back the loans, the peasants borrowed money from the money lenders and got trapped in the debt cycle. Above all the British authorities had given the plantation owners the free hand to oppress the farmers to secure the maximum production. Thus, the exploited peasants rose in revolt.
The revolt was a peasant movement and subsequent uprising of indigo farmers against the indigo planters that arose in Bengal in 1859. The back stage of the revolt goes back half a century when the indigo plantation act was established. After the courageous fight by the Sepoy for independence in 1857 in February–March 1859 the farmers refused to sow a single seedling of indigo plant. The strength of the farmers' resolutions were dramatically stronger than anticipated from a community victimized by brutal treatment for about half a century. Most importantly it was a revolt of both the major religious groups of farmers in Bengal, notably a farmer Haji Molla of Nischindipur said that he would "rather beg than sow indigo". The farmers were in no possession of any types of arms, it was totally a nonviolent resistance.