with diagram explan respiration system of frog?
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The main organs involved in the respiration process are gills (tadpole), skin and lungs (adult frog).
During the larval stage (tadpole) the gills are the main organs of the respiration. The tadpole obtains oxygen from the water and expels carbon dioxide into water through gills.
When the adult frog is underwater, the transport of oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body takes place through the skin. There are many blood vessels near the surface of the skin. Oxygen is transmitted through the skin directly into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is expelled out from the blood.
When frog is on land, the main organs involved in respiration are buccal cavity, skin and lungs. The lungs are a pair of elongated, pink coloured sac-like structures present in the upper part of the trunk region (thorax). Air enters through the nostrils into the buccal cavity and then to lungs.
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The skin of a frog is permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide, as well as to water. There are a number of blood vessels near the surface of the skin and when a frog is underwater, oxygen diffuses directly into the blood. When not submerged, a frog breathes by a process known as buccal pumping. Its lungs are similar to those of humans but the chest muscles are not involved in respiration, and there are no ribs or diaphragm to help move air in and out. Instead, it puffs out its throat and draws air in through the nostrils, which in many species can then be closed by valves. When the floor of the mouth is compressed, air is forced into the lungs. The Borneo flat-headed frog (Barbourula kalimantanensis) was first discovered in a remote part of Indonesia in 2007. It is entirely aquatic and is the first species of frog known to science that has no lungs.
Frogs have three-chambered hearts, a feature they share with lizards. Oxygenated blood from the lungs and de-oxygenated blood from the respiring tissues enter the heart through separate atria. When these chambers contract, the two blood streams pass into a common ventricle before being pumped via a spiral valve to the appropriate vessel, the aorta for oxygenated blood and pulmonary arteryfor deoxygenated blood. The ventricle is partially divided into narrow cavities which minimizes the mixing of the two types of blood. These features enable frogs to have a higher metabolic rate and be more active than would otherwise be possible.
Some species of frog have adaptations that allow them to survive in oxygen deficient water. The Lake Titicaca frog (Telmatobius culeus) is one such species and has wrinkly skin that increases its surface area to enhance gas exchange. It normally makes no use of its rudimentary lungs but will sometimes raise and lower its body rhythmically while on the lake bed to increase the flow of water around it.