write a short note on ecosystem


  • It is the interaction of living things among themselves and with their surrounding environment.

  • There are two basic ecosystems − terrestrial and aquatic.

Structure of Ecosystem

  • The interactions between the various biotic and abiotic factors of an ecosystem lead to the maintenance of the ecosystem.

  • Stratification is the vertical distribution of the different species occupying the different levels. For example, trees occur at a higher level then shrubs.

  • The various aspects taken into consideration to study the functioning of ecosystem are:

    • Productivity

    • Decomposition

    • Energy flow

    • Nutrient cycling

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i. Plants occur in distinct groups of communities in areas of similar climatic conditions.

ii. The term flora is used to denote plants of a particular region or period listed by species and considered as a group.

iii. In the same way species of the animals are termed as fauna.

iv. Nature of the plants in an area, to a large extent, determines the animal life in that area.

a. With change in vegetation animal life also undergoes changes.

b. All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent and interrelated to each other in their physical environment.

c. This interdependence and interrelationship forms ecosystem.

v. Due to constant interference of man in the physical and biological environment; balance between the two has been disturbed resulting in ecological imbalance.

vi. Due to this imbalance numerous species have become endangered and extinct.

  • 6

All the plants and the animals are dependent on each other. This system of interrelationship and the interpendence of each other forms an ecosystem.

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