write short note on 1. fragmentation 2. spore formation

Fragmentation: This is a method of asexual reproduction. Plant body breaks up into two or more fragments. These pieces grow and develop into individual plants. Example: Algae

Spore formation: Spores are asexual reproductive units. These spores are covered with hard protective cover which protects spore during unfavorable conditions. When favorable condition comes these spores germinate and grow into individual plants. Example: moss and ferns.

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When water and nutrients are available algae grow and multiply rapidly by fragmentation.An algae breaks up into two or more fragments.These fragments or pieces grow into new individuals.This process continuous and they cover a large area in a short period of time. The spores are asexual reproductive bodies.Each spore is covered by a hard protective coat to withstand unfavourable conditions such as high temperature and low humidity.So they can survive for a long time.Under favourable conditions,a spore germinates and develops into a new individual.plants such as moss and ferns also reproduce by means of spores.

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