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Equilibrium in physical processes:

  • Solid-liquid equilibrium

For any pure substance at atmospheric pressure, the temperature at which the solid and liquid phases are at equilibrium is called the normal melting point or normal freezing point of the substance.


  • Liquid-vapour equilibrium
  • Solid-vapour equilibrium


Equilibrium in chemical processes-Dynamic equilibrium:


Fig: Attainment of chemical equilibrium


Law of chemical equilibrium and equilibrium constant:


A + B ⇔ C + D


Equilibrium equation:



Where, Kc = Equilibrium constant


  • Relations between equilibrium constants for a general reaction and its multiples:

aA + bB  cC + dD ; Kc


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