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# Board Paper of Class 12-Science 2015 Economics (SET 2) - Solutions

General Instructions:
(i) All questions in both sections are compulsory. However, there is internal choice in some questions.
(ii) Marks for questions are indicated against each question.
(iii) Question No.1-3 and 15-19 are very short answer questions carrying 1 mark each. They are required to be answered in one sentence.
(iv) Question No.4-8 and 20-22 are short answer questions carrying 3 marks each. Answers to them should not normally exceed 60 words each.
(v) Question No.9-10 and 23-25 are also short answer questions carrying 4 marks each. Answers to them should not normally exceed 70 words each.
(vi) Question No.11-14 and 26-29 are long answer questions carrying 6 marks each. Answers to them should not normally exceed 100 words each.
(vii) Answers should be brief and to the point and the above word limit be adhered to as far as possible.

• Question 1
If Marginal Rate of Substitution is increasing throughout, the Indifference Curve will be : (Choose the correct alternative)
(a) Downward sloping convex
(b) Downward sloping concave
(c) Downward sloping straight line
(d) Upward sloping convex VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 3
If due to fall in the price of good X, demand for good Y rises, the two goods are : (Choose the correct alternative)
(a) Substitutes
(b) Complements
(c) Not related
(d) Competitive VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 4
Explain the significance of 'minus sign' attached to the measure of price elasticity of demand in case of a normal good, as compared to the 'plus sign' attached to the measure of price elasticity of supply. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 5
Giving reason comment on the shape of Production Possibilities Curve based on the following schedule:
 Good X (units) Good Y (units) 0 16 1 12 2 8 3 4 4 0
VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 6
Explain why will a producer not be in equilibrium if the conditions of equilibrium are not met. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 7
What are the effects of 'price-floor' (minimum price ceiling) on the market of a good? Use diagram. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 8
Explain the implication of non-price competition in an oligopoly market. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 9
What is the behaviour of (a) Average Fixed Cost and (b) Average Variable Cost as more and more units of a good are produced ?

OR

Define Average Revenue. Show that Average Revenue and Price are same. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 10
A consumer spends Rs 100 on a good priced at Rs 4 per unit. When its price falls by 25 percent, the consumer spends Rs 75 on the good. Calculate the price elasticity of demand by the Percentage method. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 11
Market for a good is in equilibrium. The supply of the good "increases". Explain the chain of effects of this change. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 12
Explain why will a producer not be in equilibrium if the conditions of equilibrium are not met. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 13
What are the different phases in the Law of Variable Proportions in terms of marginal product ? Give reason behind each phase. Use diagram. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 14
A consumer consumes only two goods X and Y, both priced at Rs. 2 per unit. If the consumer chooses a combination of the two goods with Marginal Rate of Substitution equal to 2, is the consumer in equilibrium? Why or why not? What will a rational consumer do in this situation? Explain.

OR

A consumer consumes only two goods X and Y whose prices are Rs. 5 and Rs. 4 respectively. If the consumer chooses a combination of the two goods with marginal utility of X equal to 4 and that of Y equal to 5, is the consumer in equilibrium? Why or why not? What will a rational consumer do in this situation? Use utility analysis. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 15
Primary deficit in a government budget is : (Choose the correct alternative)

(a) Revenue expenditure − Revenue receipts
(b) Total expenditure − Total receipts
(c) Revenue deficit − Interest payments
(d) Fiscal deficit − Interest payments VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 16
What is 'aggregate demand' in macroeconomics? VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 17
If MPC = 1, the value of multiplier is : (Choose the correct alternative)
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) Between 0 and 1
(d) Infinity VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 18
Other things remaining the same, when in a country the market price of foreign currency falls, national income is likely : (Choose the correct alternative)

(a) to rise
(b) to fall
(c) to rise or to fall
(d) to remain unaffected VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 19
Direct tax is called direct because it is collected directly from : (Choose the correct alternative)
(a) The producers on goods produced
(b) The sellers on goods sold
(d) The income earners VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 20
Where is 'borrowings from abroad' recorded in the Balance of Payments Accounts ? Give reasons. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 21
If the Real GDP is Rs 500 and Price Index (base = 100) is 125, calculate the Nominal GDP. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 22
What are fixed and flexible exchange rates ?

OR

Explain the meaning of Managed Floating Exchange Rate. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 23
An economy is in equilibrium. Calculate the Marginal Propensity to Save from the following :
National Income = 1000
Autonomous Consumption = 100
Investment = 120 VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 24
Explain the "Bankers' Bank function" of the central bank.

OR

Explain the "Bank of Issue function" of the central bank. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 25
Currency is issued by the central bank, yet we say that commercial banks create money. Explain. How is this money creation by commercial banks likely to affect the national income ? Explain. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 26
Explain how the government can use the budgetary policy in reducing inequalities in incomes. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 27
Giving reason explain how the following should be treated in estimation of national income :
(i) Payment of interest by a firm to a bank
(ii) Payment of interest by a bank to an individual
(iii) Payment of interest by an individual to a bank VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 28
What is 'deficient demand' ? Explain the role of 'Bank Rate' in removing it.

OR

What is 'excess demand' ? Explain the role of 'Reverse Repo Rate' in removing it. VIEW SOLUTION

• Question 29
Calculate 'Net National Product at Market Price' and 'Personal Income'.
 Rs (crores) (i) Transfer payments by government 7 (ii) Government final consumption expenditure 50 (iii) Net imports –10 (iv) Net domestic fixed capital formation 60 (v) Private final consumption expenditure 300 (vi) Private income 280 (vii) Net factor income to abroad –5 (viii) Closing stock 8 (ix) Opening stock 8 (x) Depreciation 12 (xi) Corporate tax 60 (xii) Retained earnings of corporations 20
VIEW SOLUTION
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