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Avi Sharma asked a question
Subject: English, asked on on 16/6/19
The whole movement of man's life is towards greater freedom As a child gows up hu dependence upon his parents and family progressvely dimininbes, while n fredon and selt reliance increases all the time. The goal of life seems to be fheaded in the Eesoned comugliee liberty. For the highest function of freedom is to make us capatle of govering oumeinea Freedom does not mean liberty to do anything that one pleases. Freedom has no meaning without responsibility.
All development is a process whereby we learn how to make the right choices. Hence it wo' be far from that all values are created in freedom. And what, one may ask, is the prpose of freedom? The purpose of freedom is only one- it is perfection. The entire process of time and development is far from the less to the perfect, be it in moral, ethical, physical metal or spiritual perfection. Freedom is the condition in which ideal of perfection may be realised. Complete freedom of choice complete freedom to do what you want to do-and is the only means to self-realisation.
The fully realised being is the highest ideal, not only because he fulfils himself, but also because being fully realised, he helps others to achieve their true potential.
Freedom, rather than meaning unrestricted licence, means total self-discipline, for discipline alone gives us freedom. Discipline is the means of achieving that which a free mind has evolved. Discipline is not an obstruction to freedom, but a passage to it, for the more disciplined you are, the freer you are to do that which you desire. And discipline must be imposed upon you if you cannot discipline yourself. Discipline means order while freedom may exist in chaos. And nothing worthwhile can be achieved when there is disorder and anarchy. Chaos has no power to affect anything worthwhile. So, give up all ideas you may have: that freedom meant doing anything that you fancy, for if you fancy disorder, you are not free, but bound.
1.1 On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations (minimum 4 ) wherever necessary. Also provide a suitable title.
1.2 write the summary in 80 words
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Q 2. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: 10 marks
1. From the ramparts of the Red Fort for some years now, our Prime Ministers have been
promising the eradication of child labour in hazardous industries. The truth is, if the
government really wanted, child labour in hazardous industries could have been
eliminated long time ago; and yes, every Indian child would have been in school by
2. The government has failed to eliminate this dehumanization of childhood. It has also
failed to launch compulsory primary education for all, despite the rhetoric. Between 60
and 100 million children are still at work instead of going to school and around 10
million are working in hazardous industries. India has the biggest child population in
the world, plus the largest number of children who are forced to earn a living.
3. We have many laws that ban child labour in hazardous industries. According to the
Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, the employment of children (below
the age of
14) in hazardous occupations has been strictly banned. But each state has different rules
regarding the minimum age of employment; this makes implementation of these laws
4. Also, there is no ban on child labour in non-hazardous occupations. The act applies
to the organized or factory sector and not to the unorganized or informal sector where most
children find employment as cleaners, servants, porters, waiters, among other forms of
unskilled work. Thus, child labour continues because the implementation of the existing
laws is lax.
5. There are industries which have a ?special? demand for child labour because of their
nimble fingers, high level of concentration and capacity to work hard at abysmally low
wages. The carpet industry in UP and Kashmir employs children to make hand-knitted
carpets; there are 80,000 child workers in J&K alone. In Kashmir, because of the political
unrest, children are forced to work while many schools are shut. Industries like gemcutting
and polishing, pottery and glass want to remain competitive by employing children.
6. The truth is that it?s poverty which is pushing children into the brutish labour market.
We have 260 million people below the poverty line in India; a large number of them are
women. Poor, vulnerable parents, especially women-headed families, have no option but
to push their little ones in this hard life in hostile conditions, with no human or labour
7. There is a lobby which argues that there is nothing wrong with children working as
long as the environment for work is conducive for learning new skills. But studies have
shown that children are made to do boring, repetitive and tedious jobs and are not taught
new skills as they grow older. In these hell-holes, like the sweatshops of old, there is no
8. Children working in hazardous industries are prone to debilitating diseases which
can cripple them for life. By sitting in cramped, damp, unhygienic spaces, their limbs
become deformed for life. Inside matchstick, fireworks and glass industries, they are
victims of bronchial diseases and TB. Their mental and physical development is
permanently impaired by long hours of work. Once trapped, they can?t get out of the
vicious circle of poverty. They remain uneducated and powerless. Finally, in later years,
they too are compelled to send their own children to work. Child labour perpetuates its
own nightmare
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