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#### Question A.1:

What are parallels of latitude?

Parallels of latitude are imaginary, circular parallel lines drawn horizontally between both the poles and the Equator. These lines run from west to east, as in the direction of the Earth's rotation.

Some of the important parallels of latitude are as follows:

1. The parallel of 23½° N is called the Tropic of Cancer.
2. ​The parallel of 23½° S is called the Tropic of Capricorn.
3. The parallel of 66½° N is called the Arctic Circle.
4. ​The parallel of 66½° S is called the Antarctic Circle.

#### Question A.2:

What are meridians of longitude?

A meridian of longitude is an imaginary line on the Earth's surface extending from north to south. The Prime Meridian, a zero-degree longitude, divides the Earth into two equal halves—the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemispherewhich contain 180 meridians each. All these meridians are equal in length and run from the North Pole to the South Pole.

#### Question A.3:

Which are the hottest and the coldest zone of the Earth respectively?

The Earth can be divided into hot and cold zones on the basis of the amount of heat received from the Sun.
1. The hottest zone of the Earth is known as the Torrid Zone; it lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. This zone is really hot, as it receives direct sunrays all year round.
2. The coldest zone of the Earth is known as the Frigid Zone. It receives very less heat because the rays of the Sun are very slanted here. The North Frigid Zone lies between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole, while the South Frigid Zone lies between the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole.

#### Question A.4:

What do you understand by local time?

A local time is a time calculated on the basis of a specific meridian passing through a particular place, though the place may be included in some other time zone. All the places located on the same meridian have noon at the same time. Places located on different meridians have different local times.

#### Question A.5:

What is the importance of standard time?

Standard time is a uniform time for a particular area or a country. In a time zone, standard time is generally calculated according to the meridian lying at the centre of that zone.

The importance of having standard time can be understood with the help of the following points:

1. It helps in making schedules of trains.
2. It helps in making schedules of airline flights.
3. It helps in making schedules of meetings.
4. It helps in forecasting weather.

#### Question A.6:

What are time zones?

Time zones can be understood as areas on the Earth that are divided on the basis of longitudes and that have the same standard time. The Greenwich Meridian is the starting point that divides the Earth's surface into different time zones. Each time zone is 15o or 7.5o longitude wide and the local time is one hour or half hour earlier than the zone immediately to the east on the map.

#### Question B.1:

Latitude and Longitude

 Latitude Longitude 1. It divides the Earth horizontally into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. It divides the Earth vertically into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. 2. The imaginary lines of latitude are usually known as parallels of latitude. The imaginary lines of longitude are usually known as meridians of longitude. 3. Latitudinal lines are parallel to each other; they reduce in size as they move towards the poles. Longitudinal lines are of the same length; they all cut the Earth into two equal halves.

#### Question B.2:

IST and GMT

 Indian Standard Time (IST) Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) 1. It is calculated at the Allahabad Observatory in Uttar Pradesh. It is calculated at the British Royal Observatory in Greenwich near London. 2. It is 05:30 hours ahead of GMT. It is 05:30 hours behind the IST. 3. It passes through 82½°​ E longitude. It passes through 0° longitude.

#### Question C.1:

Some lines of reference are required to locate places on the earth.

Some lines of reference are required to find out the exact locations of certain places on the Earth. These lines are latitudes and longitudes. A set of imaginary parallels of latitude and a set of meridians of longitude together make a grid system that helps to locate any specific place or area on the Earth.

#### Question C.2:

For a difference of 1 degree longitude there is a time difference of 4 minutes.

The Earth rotates 360° in about 24 hours; this implies that it covers 15° in one hour or 1° in every four minutes. Thus, when it will be noon at Greenwich, the time at 15° east of Greenwich will be 60 minutes, i.e. 15 × 4 = 60 minutes. In other words, it will be one hour ahead of the Greenwich time, which means the time will be 1:00 pm. But at 15° west of Greenwich, the time will be one hour behind the Greenwich time. In other words, the time will be 11:00 am.

#### Question C.3:

Places in the east are ahead in time than places in the west.

The Earth rotates from the west towards the east, and this is obvious from the fact that the Sun rises in the east and sets in the west. ​When the Sun rises at a particular place, any place to its east witnesses sunrise. However, it is still dark in the places to its west. In terms of longitudinal meridians, all the places in the Eastern Hemisphere to the Prime Meridian are ahead in time by 4 minutes for every 1° longitude and all the places in the Western Hemisphere to the Prime Meridian are behind by 4 minutes for every 1° longitude.

#### Question C.4:

There are 24 time zones in the world.

In 1884, a system was devised to divide the world into 24 time zones, as the Earth takes 24 hours to complete one rotation. The Greenwich Meridian is the prime meridian from where the Earth is divided into time zones. As per an international agreement, each time zone is 15° longitude or 7.5° longitude so that the difference between the standard time and GMT can be expressed as a multiple of one hour or half an hour.

#### Question D.1:

The total number of parallels across the globe is

a. 180
b. 181
c. 90
d. 360

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: The Earth is divided by the Equator into two equal halves known as the Northern Hemisphere (with 90 parallels) and the Southern Hemisphere (with 90 parallels). These 180 parallels along with the Equator make a total of 181 parallels across the globe.

#### Question D.2:

The total number of meridians across the globe is

a. 180
b. 90
c. 360
d. 181

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: Meridians on the globe starts with the Prime Meridian at Greenwich, which is marked as zero degree. All the meridians are drawn at an interval of one degree from the Prime Meridian. There are 180 meridians to the east and 180 to the west of the Prime Meridian. Thus, there are 360 meridians on the globe.

#### Question D.3:

The Tropic of Cancer is located at latitude

a. 23½°N
b. 23½°S
c. 66½°N
d. 66½°S

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: The Tropic of Cancer is one of the most important parallels of latitude. It is located at 23½° N in the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth.

#### Question D.4:

The Standard Meridian of India is

a. 88½°E
b. 86½°E
c. 84½°E
d. 82½°E

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: ​In India, the longitude of 82½° E (82° 30' E) is considered the standard meridian. The local time at this meridian is taken as the standard time for the whole country. It is known as Indian Standard Time (IST).

#### Question D.5:

The Prime Meridian passes through

a. Greenfield
b. Greenwich
c. Greenshire
d. Greenwood

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: The Prime Meridian passes through the British Royal Observatory in Greenwich near London. Its value is 0° longitude and from it we count 180° eastward as well as 180° westward. The Prime Meridian divides the Earth into two equal halves: the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere.

#### Question E:

With the help of an atlas find out the latitudes and longitudes of the following cities:

New Delhi, Washington D.C., Paris, Melbourne, Cairo, Brasilia.

Following are the longitudes and latitudes of the given places:

 New Delhi 28° 36' N, 77° 12' E Washington DC 38º 89' N, 77º 03' W Paris 48° 51' N, 2° 21' E Melbourne 37° 48' S, 144° 57' E Cairo 30° 2' N, 31° 14' E Brasilia 15° 46' S, 47° 55' W

#### Question F.1:

A country through which the equator passes _ _ _ A _ _ _

Explanation: The country through which the Equator passes is either Somalia or Ecuador. The former is located in Africa and the latter is located in South America.

#### Question F.2:

A country through which the Prime Meridian passes _ _ _ _ R _ _

Explanation: Algeria is the largest country of Africa located in the northern part of Africa. The Prime Meridian passes through this country.

#### Question F.3:

When it is noon at London it is _._ _ PM in India.

Explanation: This happens because London is at 0o meridian of longitude, while the standard time of India is calculated at 85½°​ E.

#### Question F.4:

Russia has _ _ E _ _ _ time zones.

Explanation: Since Russia has a wide stretch from east to west, it covers a large number of longitudes. This is the reason Russia has 11 time zones.

#### Question F.5:

The Tropic of Cancer passes through this country _ _ _ _ A.

Explanation: The Tropic of Cancer divides India in almost two equal halves. It passes through the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram.

#### Question F.6:

The Tropic of Capricorn passes through this country _ _ _ _ G _ _ _