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Health and Hygiene

Health and Food

Consumption of healthy food is not the only factor required for good health. Healthy lifestyle and good habits are equally important. Some of the healthy habits we all must follow:

  • Bathing regularly to remove sweat and dirt

  • Washing hands before eating

  • Keeping finger nails trim and clean

  • Rinsing or brushing teeth after every meal

  • Washing eyes with cold, clean water

  • Wearing clean undergarments

Oral hygiene

Oral hygiene refers to the habits we all must follow to maintain healthy teeth.

An adult has 32 teeth and each teeth has three parts − crown, root, and neck.

  • Crown − Crown is the part of teeth that we see.

  • Root − Root is the part of teeth that is embedded in soft tissue called gum.

  • Neck − Neck is the part that lies between root and crown.

The top white portion of the teeth is known as enamel. Below the enamel lies dentine and below the dentine, soft pulp is present. Pulp has blood vessels and nerves.

In the absence of proper oral hygiene, tooth problems start arising.

Tooth decay is the main tooth problem, which is caused by microbes in the mouth.

Microbes form plaque on the teeth. Plaque is a thick film, which microbes form by mixing food particles with saliva.

Acids produced by microbes eat away our tooth enamel and form a cavity. This cavity becomes bigger and bigger with time and may reach the dentine and then pulp, if not treated, resulting in tooth loss.

That is why, elders advice you to not eat too much of chocolates. Plaque also pushes our teeth away from the gum, resulting in sore gums and bleeding.

We should take care of our teeth in the following manner:

  • Brushing the teeth after every meal

  • Using dental floss to remove particles stuck within two teeth

  • Eating a lot of raw vegetables that make our teeth strong

  • Avoiding sticky and sugary items (like chocolates)

Hair Care

We can take care of our hair in the following manner:

  • Brush or comb every day. It not only removes dust from the hair, but also improves blood circulation.

  • Washing the hairs to keep the scalp clean

If our scalp is not clean, then white flakes, called dandruff, start forming on it.

  • Eating nutritious, balanced diet and providing the nutrition to hair by oil massage

  • Preventing lice infestations, avoiding using comb and towels of others

  • Avoiding chemicals on hair such as hair dye and other colouring agents

Eye Care

Do you know that our eyes are naturally protected by four lines of protection? These are:

  • Skull bones

  • Tear − Helps to wash out the dirt which gets into our eyes

  • Eyelids − Sense an object coming close to eye

  • Eyelashes − Keep the dust and dirt away

We can add to the protection by following ways:

  • Wearing sunglasses to avoid bright glare of sunlight

  • Keeping sharp objects away from the eyes

  • Splashing the eyes with water in the morning

  • Avoiding gazing at television and computer for long by taking breaks every 20 minutes

  • Visiting a doctor, if you have any problem looking at the blackboard or book

  • Eating a healthy diet rich in vitamin A

Community Hygiene

Can you guess what will happen, if you take all steps to ensure good health at your level, but your surroundings are dirty and full of mosquitoes?

Yes, you will fall ill despite of ensuring cleanliness at your level.

Therefore, a clean community is equally important for good health.


Sanitation includes proper disposal of waste.

Some methods of waste deposal are:

Composting − In this, biodegradable waste is dumped into a deep pit. The waste in the pit is decomposed naturally by the action of microbes.

Dumping− In this, waste is dumped in low lying areas situated away from human settlement.

Sewage Treatment plants − The domestic sewage from the houses of our city goes into the sewage treatment plant. In this, solid waste present in the sewage is converted into manure.

Safe drinking water

Safe drinking water is of utmost importance for good health.

Water can be cleaned by the following methods:

  • Adding chlorine tablets to kill the germs. This process is called chlorination.

  • Adding alum crystals to the water, if it is muddy to make the mud particle settle down and obtain clean water on the upper layer

  • Sedimentation of water in earthen pots to settle down the suspended impurities

  • Boiling the water for at least fifteen minutes to get rid of germs

Adequate Exercise and Rest

Healthy food and maintaining hygiene are important factors to have good health. In addition, exercising regularly and having a sound sleep are also necessary for being healthy and fit.

How does exercise help?

Exercise makes our muscles strong and firm and improves the coordination of our nerves and muscles.

When we exercise, the heart pumps more blood and the lungs expand more to take up the oxygen. More oxygen is delivered to the muscle cells and food is oxidised at a faster rate.

In this way, heart, lungs, and muscles become more efficient and strong.

How does sleep help?

Sleep helps us to stay physically fit and mentally alert.

Without sleep, we become irritable and less efficient.

During sleep, heart beat and blood pressure slows down and hence heart, lungs, and muscles relax.…

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