1. Preamble:The Preamble, the preface to the constitution, describes the source nature, ideology, goals and objectives of the constitution. It describes India as a sovereignsocialist, secular, democratic republic and underlines the-national objective of social just: economic justice and political justice as well as fraternity. Itemphasises the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. It declares that in India the people sovereign.2. Written Constitution:There are two types of constitutions in the world. Most of the constitutions are written. The first modern written constitution was the American constitution. Onthe other hand, the British constitution is unwritten. It consists of customs and conventions which have grown over the years. In India, we have a writtenconstitution. The framers of our constitution tried to put everything in black and white.3. Longest Constitution:The Constitution of India is the longest one in the world. Originally it had 395 Articles and 8 schedules. During the period since 1950 a few Articles have beendeleted, but many more have been added through amendments.Today the constitution has 395 Articles and 12 schedules. However there is a view that theconstitution today has 444 Articles. Originally the constitution had 22 parts. Now it has 24 parts. The constitution became lengthy mainly due to the followingfactors.(a) The constitutional fathers wanted to put everything in great detail.(b) In other federations, there are two constitutions: one for the federation and the other for the states. In India, the states do not have separate constitutions.The powers of states along with the powers of the federation have been stated in one constitution.(c) The Government of India Act, 1935 was in operation when India got independence. Our leaders were familiar with this Act. They borrowed heavily from thislengthy Act while framing our constitution.(d) India is a country of great diversity. It is a country of several minorities; it has many languages, castes, races and religions. The problems and interests ofthese different groups have found place in the constitution.(e) Good features of other constitutions have been included, with necessary modifications, in our constitution. For example, we have brought the 'bill of rights'from the American constitution, parliamentary system of government from the British constitution and Directive Principles of State Policy from the Irishconstitution.While including these elements of other constitutions in our constitution Ambedkar said the framers of our constitution tried to remove their faults and suit themto our conditions.(f) Many members of the Constituent Assembly were "lawyer-politicians". They have made the constitution not only long, but also extremely complicated.Ivora Jennings has described our constitution as a 'lawyer's paradise'.Jennings says that a constitution should be intelligible to common people, but they fail to clearly understand the Indian constitution which is very complex.Every article of this constitution can be interpreted by the higher judiciary, and lawyers, while interpreting, different articles, further complicate the constitution.4. Partly Rigid, Partly Flexible:Whether a constitution is rigid or flexible depends on the nature of amendment. If the constitutional laws and ordinary laws are amended separate ways, it is arigid constitution. On the contrary, in a flexible constitution constitutional laws and ordinary laws are amended in the same way.Some provisions of the Constitution of India can be amended by the Indian Parliament with simple majority. The amendment of most other provisions of theconstitution requires a special majority in both houses of the parliament. There are some other provisions of constitution which cannot be amended by theparliament alone.In case of such provision the amending bill has first to be approved by both houses of parliament by a special majority (with the support oftwo-thirds of the members of each house present and voting). Then it has to be ratified by the legislatures of at least half of the states of India. These different amendmentprocedures make our constitution partly flexible and rigid. In fact, there is a balance between rigidity and flexibility in our constitution.Some amount of flexibility was introduced into our constitution in order to encourage its growth. Nehru feared that if a constitution is too rigid, it will be stagnant.5. Parliamentary Democracy:In India, there is a parliamentary form of govern The majority party in the Lower House (Lok Sabha) forms government. The Council Ministers is responsible tothe Lok Sabha. The Cabinet is the real executive head. In Presidential form of government, the President is the executive head. In India, the President is onlythe nominal head.In Britain, the monarchy is hereditary. But in India, the post of President is elective our founding fathers adopted the parliamentary model for two reasons. Firstly, they believed that a parliamentary form of government would be more responsible democratic than the presidential form of government.Secondly, they were, to so extent, familiar with the parliamentary form of government during the British rule particularly after the implementation of the Government of India Act, 1935.6. Role of Conventions:Though India has a very detailed constitution, there is some scope for conventions to influence its functioning. On some vital issues constitution is silent andone has to depend upon well-established parliament conventions on such occasions.For example, the constitution does not say whether government,defeated on a 'snap vote' in the Lok Sabha, will be required to resign whether the recommendation of a defeated government for the dissolution of the Sabha is to be accepted by the President of India.7. Federal Government with Unitary Bias:India is a federation, although word 'federation' does not find a place in the whole text of the Indian Constitution. The elements of federation are present in theIndian Constitution. It is a written and rigid constitution.There is dual polity and there is constitutional division of powers between the centre and the states.There is also an independent judiciary. The Supreme C arbitrates the disputes between the centre and the states.All these provisions make India a federation.But in Indian Federation, the centre is strong as compared to the slates. The centre has more financial powers and the states largely depend upon it for theireconomic development. The Planning Commission has emerged as a 'super cabinet' or a 'super state'. The Governor acts as the agent of the centre.The centre can reorganize a state, but a state cannot reorganize the centre. In other words, the centre is indestructible while the states are destructible. During emergencies, the powers of the centre considerably grow and the states become weak. K. C. Where has described the Indian government as 'quasi-federal'. India has also been characterised as 'a federal state with unitary spirit.'8. Fundamental Rights:The Fundamental Rights are guaranteed to the individuals by our constitution. These are enumerated in Pail III of the constitution. These rights are fundamental because they are basic to the moral and spiritual development of the individual and these rights cannot be easily abridged by the parliament.Now the citizen enjoys six fundamental rights, originally there were seven fundamental rights. One of them was taken away from Part III of the constitution bythe Forty-fourth Amendment Act, 1978. As a result, the Right to Property is no longer a fundamental right. Since 1978, it has become a legal right.An individual can now own property; he can enjoy it or dispose of it. But when the government takes it away, he cannot go for a writ challenging the validity ofthe government's action.The six fundamental rights are - (1) Right to Equality, (2) Right to Freedom, (3) Right against Exploitation, (4) Right to Freedom ofReligion, (5) Cultural and Educational Rights and (6) Right to Constitutional Remedies. The Fundamental Rights are subject to some restrictions.The idea of fundamental rights has been borrowed from the American Constitution.Any citizen of India can seek the help of High Court or Supreme Court of India if any of his fundamental rights is undermined by the government or anyinstitution or any other government. The fundamental rights, granted to the citizen, cannot be amended in the normal manner. They can be amended withtwo-third majority in each house of the Parliament.9. Directive Principles of State Policy:The Directive Principles of State Policy are enumerated in Part IV of the constitution. They are instructions or directives from the constitution to the state and the government.It is the duty of the government to implement them.Originally there were 20 Directive Principles. Three more were added by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976. Thus, in total, there are now 23 Directive Principles.Some of the important Directive Principles are: (1) There should not be concentration of wealth and means of production to the detriment of common man; (2)There should be equal pay for equal work for both men and women; (3) Workers should be paid adequate wage; (4) Weaker sections of the people, ScheduledCaste and Scheduled Tribe people should be given special care; (5) The state should promote respect for international law and international peace.In general, the Directive Principles aim at building a Welfare State. The Directive Principles are not enforceable in a Court of Law, but they are neverthelessfundamental in the governance of the country. These principles provide the criteria with which we can judge the performance of the government.10. An Independent and Integrated Judiciary:An independent judiciary is a none of any federation. The judiciary in India is independent and impartial. It is an integrated judiciary with the Supreme Court atthe apex of the hierarchy. The High Courts stand in its middle, and the lower courts are located at its bottom.The Judges security of tenure and it is extremelydifficult to remove any Judge of the Supreme or of the High Court through impeachment. Recently the Parliament failed to impeach Justice Ramaswamy ofthe Supreme Court who was charged with corruption. Soft a single Judge in India has been removed from office through impeachment.The Supreme Courtand the High Court have the power of Judicial Review. They have the power to declare acts of legislatures and actions of the Executive ultra such acts oractions are found to be in conflict with the provisions of the constitution.The Supreme Court of India has the power of Judicial Review. In the United of Americathere is judicial dominance. The Supreme Court of America can declare invalid if it violates natural justice. For many years it was maintained that the Su Courtof India did not have this power. But now it is the view of the Supreme C India that it can declare any law ultra wires if it violates natural justice.11. Universal Franchise:Article 326 of the Constitution of India provides universal adult suffrage. The voting age has now come down from 21 to 18. Anybody who has completed18 years of age is eligible to vote in general elections. This is one of the most revolutionary aspects of Indian democracy.12. Secularism:India is a secular state. Although the 42nd Amendment Act, inserted the word 'secular' in the Preamble to the constitution, India has been secularism sinceindependence.India is a country of several religions and each individual has fundamental profess any religion he likes. The state cannot force him to acceptany specific India is a secular state. In India, there is no State Religion. In matters relating to the state is neutral and non-interfering. It does not patronize anyreligion. Nor discriminate against any religion.13. Single Citizenship:In the United States of America, there is double citizenship. An American is a citizen of America and at the same time he is also a citizen of the 50 States ofAmerica. In India, there is only single citizenship. An Indian is a citizen of India only. He is not a citizen of any Indian state. Single citizenship is meant to snational unity and national integration.14. Fundamental Duties:Fundamental Duties did not form part of the constitution. Ten Fundamental Duties were inserted in Part IV of the constitution 42nd Amendment Act, 1976.Some of the important Fundamental Duties are:(1) To abide by the constitution and respect the ideals and institutions, the national flag and the national anthem;(2) To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; (3) To defend the country and render national service; (4) To protect and improve thenatural environment; (5) To safeguard public property and to abjure violence. A new Article - Article 51-A enumerates ten Fundamental Duties. These dutiesare assigned only to citizens and not to aliens. These duties are not justifiable,but, in case of conflict, they will prevail over Fundamental Rights.15. Welfare State:Our constitution aims at building a Welfare State. It provides for development of weaker and depressed sections of the society. It underlines the need ofimproving the conditions of women, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes who have remained neglected for long.Our constitution is opposed toconcentration of wealth and means of production. Workers should be involved in management and they should get fair wages. Children should not beexposed to hazards. All these provisions are expected to help in building a Welfare State.16. Democratic System:Our constitution lays a lot of emphasis on democratic values, and a number of democratic institutions have been established to give shape to these values. The centre, states and local self-governing bodies follow democratic principles, and all elections from gram panchayat to parliament are democratically held.All persons of 18 years age and more, irrespective of their caste, religion and gender, are eligible to vote in elections, and the constitution has provided forreservations in elections for dalits and tribal's. No democracy can survive if citizens are not allowed fundamental rights. The Indian constitution has granted anumber of valuable fundamental rights to the citizens.