describe the structure of mitochondria

Mitochondrion is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

Mitochondria are responsible for the production of most of the energy (or ATP) in cells. Therefore, mitochondria are also known as the   power house   of cells. A mitochondrion is composed of two lipid membranes, enclosing the matrix. The inner membrane gets folded to form numerous  cristae.   Cristae are the main site for ATP production. Mitochondrial matrix contains mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes

Functions of mitochondria:

  • They produce energy required for cells in the form of ATP.

  • They also regulate the free calcium ion concentration in the cytosol.

  • They participate in apoptosis or programmed cell death.

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  • Sausage-shaped or cylindrical cell organelles, visible only with specific staining under the microscope

  • Have double-membrane system: Inner membrane and Outer membrane

    • These membranes divide the lumen of the mitochondria into two compartments − the outer compartment and the inner compartment (matrix)

    • Outer membrane − forms the boundary of the organelle

    • Inner membrane − forms the infoldings called cristae; this increases the surface area of the inner membrane

    • Both membranes have specific enzymes associated with them.

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