Explain the election procedure in India .

 1.Preparation of voter's list

In a democratic election, the list of those who are eligible to vote is prepared much before the election and given to everyone.this list is officially called the Electoral Roll and is commonly known as the Voter's list.

 2. Nomination of candidates 

  •  The only difference is that in order to be a candidate the minimum age is 25 while it is only 18 years for being a voter.
  • Every person who wishes to contest an election has to fill a 'nomination form' and give some money as 'security deposit'

3.  Election Campaign

 It is necessary to have a free and fare and open discussion about who is a better representative ,which party will make a better govt. or what is a good policy. This is what happens during the election campaign.

4.   Polling and counting of votes

 The final stage of an election is the day when the voter's cast or "poll" their vote. Every person whose name is on the voters list can go to a nearby "polling booth"  situated usually in a  local school or a govt. office.

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  1. The country is divided into Constituencies. Some Constituencies are reserved for SCs, STs and OBCs.
  2. Once the Constituencies are decided, the next step is to decide who can and who cannot vote. In India, the list of people eligible to vote is prepared long before the elections and is called the Voter's List.
  3. Candidates of the political parties are nominated by the respective parties.
  4. The candidates campaign and release their manifestoes so that the people get to know them.
  5. Parties and Candidates need to follow a Code of Conduct during elections.
  6. Polling is done on a day selected by the Election Commission.
  7. After polling is done, the votes are counted and the party getting the majority forms the Government.

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  • Electoral Constituencies
1)  The country is divided into electoral constituencies for both the Lok Sabha and the Legislative Assembly elections. One representative is elected from each constituency by the voters.
2)  The country is divided into 543 constituencies for the Lok Sabha elections. The selected representative is called the Member of Parliament or MP.
3)  Similarly, each state is divided into a number of Assembly constituencies and the representative selected from each constituency is called the Member of Legislative Assembly or MLA.
 
  • Reserved Constituencies
1)  In open electoral competitions, certain weaker sections of the society may not stand a good chance of winning because of the influence of powerful sections. Hence, the makers of our Constitution prepared a system of reserved constituencies for these weaker sections.
2)  Certain constituencies are reserved for the people belonging to the Scheduled Castes (SC) and the Scheduled Tribes (ST).
3)  In the Lok Sabha, seats reserved for the SCs and STs are 79 and 41 respectively. These are in proportion to their population in the total population of the country.
4)  Seats are reserved for the Other Backward Classes (OBC) as well.
 
  • Voter’s List
1)  The list of people who are eligible for voting is prepared by the Election Commission of India.
2)  This ensures that everyone in the country gets an equal opportunity of choosing their political representatives.
3)  Regardless of a persons caste, creed, colour and gender, every citizen of and above 18 years of age is eligible to vote.
 
  • Eligibility for Contesting Elections
1)  An Indian citizen.
2)  Age should be minimum 25 years.
3)  There are restrictions on people with criminal records, but those are extreme cases.
4)  The candidate has to fill a „nomination form and give a „security deposit.
5)  Also, a legal declaration has to be made with details of pending criminal cases against the candidate, assets and liabilities of the candidate and the educational qualifications of the candidate.
 
  • Election Campaign
1)  Election campaigns in India takes place for two weeks, starting from the declaration of the final list of candidates contesting the elections and concluding 48 hours before the date of polling.
2)  During this campaign, candidates reach out to the voters. Political leaders hold election meetings and rallies for informing the voters about their policies and persuading them to vote for them.
3)  Some successful slogans used during campaigns are “Garibi Hatao” (used by the Congress, led by Indira Gandhi, in the year 1971), “Save Democracy” (used by Janata party in 1977), “Land to the Tiller’ (used by The Left Front in West Bengal Assembly elections, 1977), etc.
 
  • Model Code of Conduct
1)  Hold election propaganda in places of worship
2)  Use government aircrafts and vehicles, government officials, etc.
3)  On the announcement of elections, ministers cannot take policy decisions or start any big projects.
 
  • Polling and Counting of votes
1)  A person, with his name on the voters list can go to a polling booth, get identified by the officials, get the mark on his finger, and caste the vote for the candidate of his choice.
2)  Agents of the candidates are permitted to be seated inside the polling booths for ensuring that a fair voting takes place.
3)  Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) are used for casting votes instead of the ballot paper.
4)  Counting of votes begin after few days of election.
 
 
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The Electoral process in India ca be divided into the following main stages:

  1. Delitation of Constituencies: The whole country in case of Lok Sabha elections and that particular state in the case of Legislative Assembly elections is divided into as many constituencies as there are seats.
  2. Preparation of Voter's List: The voter's list of each constituency is prepared and published. The voter's list contains the names of all those who are eligible to vote.
  3. Filing of nomination papers: Any person (with the necessary qualifications) who wishes to contest elections has to file his nomination papers by the due date. Every candidate has to deposit an amount as 'Security' along wit his nomination papers.
  4. Scrunity of nomination papers and withdrawals: The nomination papers are scrutinized and if the candidate papers are not in order, they are rejected. the candidates can also withdraw their names from elections up to a certain date fixed by the EC.
  5. Election Campaign: Through election campaigns political parties and candidates 'reach out' to the voters with the hope of winning their votes. Posters, pamphlets are printed nad distributed. Meetings are held and speeches delivered. Use of eltronic media like radio and television is also made by the political parties and candidates. Election campaigns take place for a two week period between the announcement of for a two-week period between the announcement of final list of candidates and the date of polling.
  6. Voting: The final stage of an election is the day when voters caste their vote. Voters go to the polling booth and caste their votes for the candidate of their choice. Voting is held by secret ballot. These days eletronic voting machines are used for voting.
  7. Counting of votes and declaration of results: After the voting is over, the ballot boxes are sealed and taken to the counting centres. Votes are counted under the supervision of the returning officers. The candidate who gets the highest number of votes is declared elected.

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