Explain the formation of hydrogen molecule on the basis of electrostatic interactions giving potential energy diagram.

             Hydrogen molecule is formed through covalent bonding by the sharing of two electrons between the two hydrogen atoms in the molecule. As per valence bond theory, overlapping of the two 1s orbitals take place, and forms a pair of electrons within the two overlapping orbitals as shown below: 
            There is an attractive force between the positive charges on both of the hydrogen nuclei and the pair of electrons. Overlapping occurs when they move closer and closer and thus a covalent bond will be formed. Thus, these attractive positive-negative electrostatic interactions between nucleus of one atom and electron of the other lowers the potential energy of the system.
            When they come closer and closer, the repulsive forces come into focus and tend to overcome the attractive forces, and hence, the potential energy of the system rises.

  • 12
What are you looking for?