Explain with examples: macronutrients, micronutrients, beneficial nutrients, toxic elements and essential elements.

Macronutrients: They are the nutrients required by plants in large amounts. They are present in plant tissues in amounts more than 10 mmole kg–1 of dry matter. Examples include hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

Micronutrients: They are also called trace elements and are present in plant bodies in very small amounts, i.e., amounts less than 10 mmole kg– 1 of dry matter. Examples include cobalt, manganese, zinc, etc.

Beneficial nutrients: They are plant nutrients that may not be essential, but are beneficial to plants. Sodium, silicon, cobalt and selenium are beneficial to higher plants.

Toxic elements: Micronutrients are required by plants in small quantities. An excess of these nutrients may induce toxicity in plants. For example, when manganese is present in large amounts, it induces deficiencies of iron, magnesium, and calcium by interfering with their metabolism.

Essential elements: These elements are absolutely necessary for plant growth and reproduction. The requirement of these elements is specific and non-replaceable. They are further classified as macro and micro-nutrients.

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