Problems faced by the tribal group under colonial rule and changes the tribal life during british rule. Explain?

Overthrow of Tribal Chiefs:
  1. The tribal chiefs were supervising many areas. But under the British rule, their powers were suppressed.
  2. The chiefs were to follow British laws and had to pay duty to the British government.
  3. They were incapable to accomplish their conventional tasks.
Condition of Jhum Cultivators:

1. The British wanted to settle down the Jhum cultivators because:
              (a) The Jhum cultivators were moving around and did not have a permanent place to settle.
              (b)The British felt that the settled population would be easier to manage and supervise than the shifting people.
              (c) The British also sought a consistent income for the state.
2. However the steps taken by the British were not very effective.
This was because the settled cultivation was not appropriate in many places as the lands were dry and unproductive and there was water scarcity.
4. After widespread disputes, the British permitted the shifting cultivation in some parts of the forest.

Effect of forest law:
  1. The British enacted forest laws and declared some areas of the forests as ‘Reserved forests’.
  2. They restricted the tribals from entering the forests; the tribals had to move to other places for income and survival.
  3. However, this caused the British a problem. The forest department could not get labours to cut trees, to carry logs for railway sleepers.
  4. Then the officials got an idea that to give small plots of land in the forests to the jhum cultivators.
  5. The jhum cultivators were permitted to live in those lands provided that they had to supply labour to the forest department.
  6. Thus the British got regular supply of cheap labour.
Protests by tribal groups:
  1. Many tribal communities protested against forest laws.
  2. They did not follow the new rules and continued doing things that were stated illegal.
  3. Some of such rebellions were of the forest satyagraha in the Central Provinces in 1930s and Songram Sangma in Assam in 1906.

  • 5

1) they have to discipline the tribals on behalf of the british.

2)they were unable to celebrate their rituals.

3)they have to follow britsh rules in india.

4)they have to pay tribute to british

5)they lost their administrative powers.

  • 1
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