short note about northern mountains.

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Extent and Stretch:

The young fold moun­tainous chain Himalayas rise to over 8,000 meters from the sea level. They run in an east-west direc­tion along the entire northern boundary of India for 2400 kms. The mountainous ranges are about 240 to 500 kms. Broad covering about 500,000 sq. kms.

Their aerial stretch is between the Indus River and the Brahmaputra, encompassing parts of the Himachal Pradesh, the entire Jammu and Kashmir, the Dehradun district and Kumauni division of U.P. Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, the Darjeeling district of West Bengal, the States of Assam, Manipur. Tripura, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram.


These Mountains are of tectonic in origin. They have been uplifted during the tertiary period from the bed of the great sea Tethys which was lying between the two ancient land-masses of Angara land in the north and Godwin land in the south. They took about 7 million years to attain their present height.

The shape of the Himalayas is like an arc. The upper parts of the Himalayas are covered with perpetual snow. The snow fields cover about 40,000 sq. kms from Kashmir to Assam. The main crust of the Himalayan ranges rises above the snow line which varies between 4,500 to 6,000 meters in the west and 4,000 to 5,800 meters in the east.

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One of the most important physical divisions of India is the northern plain:

i. The Himalayan and the Peninsular Rivers have made up this vast undulating plain by depositing alluvial soil.

ii. This plain is the result of the interplay of three major river systems. They are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmputra and their tributaries.

iii. The deposition of alluvium in a vast basin lying at the foot hills of the Himalayas over millions of years formed the most fertile plain in the world.

iv. It is spread over an area of 7 lakh s km. The plain is about 2400 km. long and 240 to 320 km. wide. It is the most densely populated physiographic division.

v. With a rich soil cover combined with adequate water supply and favourable climate it is agriculturally the most productive part of the country.

vi. This plain has been the centre of human settlements from ancient times.

vii. Numerous large cities have evolved on the banks of the rivers.

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