What is DNA and RNA .Differentiate between DNA and RNA. If possible explain with structure.
The following distinguishing characteristics can be used to differentiate between DNA and RNA:
- Pentose sugar - the deoxyribose of DNA has one less oxygen than the ribose of RNA
- Nitrogenous bases - DNA contain adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine; RNA contains adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine.
- Strandedness - DNA is double-stranded and RNA is single-stranded.
- Functions - DNA stores genetic information and RNA transfers the information to other places in the cell.
- Location - DNA is only found in the nucleus whereas RNA can be found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. DNA contains the information for protein synthesis; RNA carries out protein synthesis.
- Reactivity - DNA is less reactive due to stable C-H bonds; RNA is more reactive due to C-OH bond. DNA is stable in alkaline/basic conditions while RNA is unstable in alkaline/basic conditions.
- UV radiation - DNA is more easily damaged.
- Grooves - DNA has smaller grooves reduce enzyme ability to attach and damage while RNA has large grooves enable enzymes to attach and damage.
- Geometry - DNA has B-form helix geometry and RNA has A-form helix geometry
DNA, Deoxyribonucleic acid, is a double-helix shaped nucleic acid. It consists of four bases guanine, which pairs with cytosine, and adenine, which pairs with thymine. These bases are held together with a simple hydrogen bond. On the outside rim we have a sugar, deoxyribose, which connects to a phosphate on either side, and to a base.
RNA is transcribed from DNA by enzymes, and also is structurally similar. In RNA, uracil connects with adenine, replacing thymine, which is not found in RNA. Another notable difference in what RNA is made of is that it's sugar is simply ribose, which has an extra hydroxyl. RNA is also usually does not have the bases pairing up, (think as if you took a strand of DNA, untwisted it, and tore it in half along the base-pairs)
Messenger RNA, mRNA, carries information for protein synthesis from DNA to structures called ribosomes. Ribosomes are made from proteins and another form of RNA called ribosomal RNA, rRNA.