What is fractional distillation of petroleum? arrange the products formed with the help of a diagram and give uses of any 3 products
Fractional distillation of petroleum is basically defined as separating the various components of petroleum (or crude oil as it is often called with the help of a fractionating column. Petroleum, as we know is a mixture of different hydrocarbons. As these hydrocarbons are miscible with each other, hence they cannot be separated easily and require special techniques such as fractional distillation. Following are the various components that are obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum :
1) Petroleum gas
3) Gasoline (or petrol)
6) Fuel oil
7) Residual oil ( lubricating oil, paraffin wax, asphalt etc)
Petrol is a very important fuel that is used in cars and other vehicles. Diesel is also used as a vehicle fuel for automobiles. It is also used in generators. Paraffin wax has many uses like in candle making, in adhesives, in rubber industry etc.
The fractional distillation of petroleum is a method of refiening the petroleum..Its a type of distillation in which the boiling point of various products are considered.
As its result, We get
petrol, Kerosene, diesel, paraffin wax, lubricant oil ,bitumin.. etc.
Petrol: Used as motor fuel, aviation fuel, solvant of dry cleaning etc.
paraffin wax: Used as candle, vasseline, ointments etc..
bitumin : Used in paints, road metalling etc..
the various hydrocarbons present in petroleum have different boiling points. As the carbons atoms in a hydrocarbon increses,its boiling point also incrreses. This property is used to seprate the different components of petroleumby the process called fractional distilation.