what is the difference between true solution,suspension,colloidal sol ? I want detailed information

Types of Solutions

Solution is defined as a homogeneous mixture of two or more chemical substances. The state of matter of a solution may be solid, liquid or gas. For example: common salt in water (liquid solution), air (gaseous solution), alloys (solid solution), etc. The components of a solution may be classified as:

  • Solute
  • Solvent An intimate mixture of solute and solvent is called a solution.

true solutions:A true solution is a homogeneous solution in which the solute particles have diameters between 0.1 nm to 1 nm i.e., the solute particles are of molecular dimensions. Such dispersed particles dissolve in solution to form a homogenous system. These do not settle down when the solution is left standing. The particles are invisible even under powerful microscopes and cannot be separated through filter paper, parchment paper or animal membranes. For example, sodium chloride in water is a true solution. Most ionic compounds form true solutions in water. Organic compounds like sugar and urea also form true solutions in water.

suspensions:Suspensions consist of particles of a solid suspended in a liquid medium. Suspensions are systems with two distinct phases. The particles in suspensions are bigger than 100 nm to 200 nm across. The particles of a suspension may not be visible to the naked eye but are visible under a microscope. Suspensions are heterogeneous systems. They stay only for a limited period i.e. these are not stable as the particles have a tendency to settle down under the influence of gravity. The particles of a suspension can neither pass through ordinary filter paper nor through animal membranes. Examples of suspensions are sodium chloride in benzene, turmeric in water, silver chloride, barium sulphate or sand in water.

colloids:Colloidal solution or colloidal state or colloidal dispersion, represent an intermediate kind of a mixture between true solution and suspension. The size of a colloidal particle lies roughly between 1-100 nm. Colloids are also a two-phase heterogeneous system consisting of the dispersed phase and dispersion medium. However, colloidal particles present in small amount as the dispersed phase component behave like a solute in a solution when suspended in a solvent phase or dispersing medium, because of their small size.

Since the dispersed phase in a colloidal system is uniformly distributed in the dispersion medium, the colloidal state appears homogenous to the naked eye or even an ordinary microscope (due to particles being invisible). However it is a heterogeneous dispersion of two immiscible phases and this is proved by viewing it under an ultra-microscope, where the light reflected by colloidal particles can be seen. Colloidal particles do not settle down under gravity: a colloidal solution of gold prepared by Faraday over 125 years ago continues to be in excellent condition even today. Colloids can pass through ordinary filter paper but do not pass through animal membranes.

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