Logical Reasoning

Introduction to logical reasoning

**Logical Reasoning**: The study of logic is also referred to as the study of reasoning. It is concerned with proposals and the elements that make them up.

A **proposition** is a declarative sentence that states whether something is true or not. It may be broken down into four primary grammatical sections, just like any other sentence:

- The subject term
- The predicate term
- The quantifier
- The copula

Let's go over each term one by one.

**1. THE SUBJECT TERM:**The subject of a proposition is the part of it about which anything is said. Consider the following scenario:

**2. THE PREDICATE TERM:**The part of a phrase that tells us who or what the subject is. Consider the following scenario:

**3. THE QUANTIFIER:**Quantifiers are words like "all," "no," and "some" that indicate an amount. Consider the following scenario:

**4. THE COPULA:**A word or a group of words that link the proposition's subject and predicate. Consider the following scenario:

Let's have a look at the structure of a basic categorical proposition.

S.No. | Quantifier | Subject | Copula | Predicate |

1 | All | birds | can | fly |

2 | No | foxes | are | birds |

3 | Some | replies | are | snakes |

4 | All | S | are | P |

**NOTE:**The letters '

**S**' and '

**P**' are used to denote the subject and predicate terms of a categorical proposition, respectively.

**Quantity of categorical proposition :**

The amount of a categorical proposition is a measurement of the degree to which the subject and predicate terms are related.

- If the asserted inclusion or exclusion holds for every member of the class represented by the subject term, the categorical proposition is a universal proposition. Take into account::

2. No dog can fly.

- If the asserted inclusion or exclusion holds for one or more members of the class defined by the subject term, a categorical proposition is a particular assertion. Consider the following scenario:

2. Some fruits are bitter.

Thus, the subject term is distributed in all propositions but undistributed in every particular proposition.

**Quality of categorical proposition :**

The nature …

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